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коммента: Journey to the regency of Algiers, or Description of the country occupied by the French army in Africa: containing observations on physical geography, geology, meteorology. : followed by details on trade, agriculture, sciences and arts, morals. T. 1 / by M. Rozet.

Author: Rozet, Claude-Antoine (1798-1858). Author of the text

Publisher: (Paris)

Дата издания : 1833

Plot: French Colonies — Africa

Subject: Afrique du Nord

Description of the series: http://catalogue. bnf. fr/ark:/12148/cb36399391q

Type: printed monograph

Язык : французский

Language: French

Format: 3 t. et 1 atlas: map; in-8 et in-fol. (Atlas)

Format: Total number of views : 34

Присание: Descriptions and Travels — +* 1800. – 1899. +:19th century:

Rights of use: Consultable online

Rights of use: Public domain

Source: National Library of France, department of Philosophy, history, human sciences, 8-Lk8-36 (1)

Origin: Bibliothèque nationale de France

Дата публикации онлайн : 15/10/2007

Отображаемый текст может содержать ряд ошибок. The text mode of this document was automatically generated by the optical character recognition (OCR) program. Предполагаемый уровень распознавания для этого документа составляет 88%.


iQ~! t BY THE ARMEIi:’ French

~hr PA~/O~~E BY THE Army: FRENCH ‘aË~i~~AFMQtJE;



Containing about 30 plates, composed of map, views, figures and plates, representing costumes, furniture, inttrumens, weapons, etc., including a colored part.

The cruelty of the different peoples who inhabit this part of Africa between the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, and the arrogance of the bloodthirsty despots who ruled over this beautiful country, have, until the latter

time, prevented observers from being able to visit it’ and describe it like so many other parts of the. however, they are much further away from Europe.

All the); travelers who have penetrated into the Barbary states have seen very little for themselves, and this is according to the accounts of men, whose language they misunderstood,~if the slightest flaw is to lie, they have checked their books. Some captives, who had never lost sight of the walls of Algiers, by telling the evils they had suffered and all that they had seen in this den of pirates, gave the description of the whole Regency, as if they had visited the different parts of it. The consuls of the Christian powers~re~ldans in Barbarism, have also published several books on this country but, where i! they limited themselves to describing the cities in which they lived, or what they said about the rest of the country is very inaccurate. Finally, after the success of the expedition, sent by Charles X to destroy pirates who, for three centuries, had imposed laws on the whole of Europe, a host of memoirs and even complete works on the Regency were published, written by men who had stayed only two months in Africa and who had only visited the terrain between Sydi-Efroudj and Algiers. M. Rozet, known for his geological work, was attached to the general staff of the African Army as a geographer-engineer. After witnessing the capture of Algiers, he stayed for almost two years on the African shores, continuously busy with topographical work, the execution of which put him in a position to make numerous observations on the entire country that he traveled. He followed the army in its various expeditions around Algiers and beyond the small Atlas, which he crossed three times. Then sent to Oran, to fa~re the topography of the surroundings of this city, he explored its territory to a great distance, and independently of observations on all parts of natural history, he was able to collect many notions about the industry and the customs of the nomadic tribes that inhabit it. Finally, to the observed facts

Mr. ‘Rozet first transports the reader to a few u~dea pointed cuiminana of countries from which he is going~maintain, aj6~to give him a real idea, he actually noticed everything that strikes the eye first of all your mountains, the plains, the great rivers and the viMea. In addition, he undertakes the physical deacription of the countries he has visited, which! we have to talk about the general problem of the waters and basins of the main rivers. The physical geography is succeeded by the meteorology of the tables drawn up with the greatest care give for thirteen months, day by day and five times a day, the heights of the barometer and the thermometer, the direction of the wind, the celebration of the sky and that of the sea. These tables are. followed by a reaumé in which all the observations were diacuted, which led to reaultàta of the greatest importance for the knowledge of the climate. There. geology, the author’s favorite science, has been treated with great deveioppemena all the rocks that . enter into the composition of the soil aoat described; it says Tail. influence each exerts on the vegetation, of what use they can be in the arts, what are the mineral substances they contain and what they are used for by the inhabitants.. According to the perfect knowledge of the geognostic constitution of the terrain, he indicates the localities where it would be possible to probe with some chances of success, to obtain, earthen coal and gushing springs, which would be of the greatest use for the new colony.. Botany succeeds biology-: after having shown the relationships that exist between the vegetation of the Algerian states and that of France, Mr. Rozet é~enumerates the main plant species that grow naturally then, it goes to the

plants and trees grown in gardens and fields, then he gives general notions about agriculture. The animal kingdom has been studied in all its branches, from zoophytes to humans. Numerous collections sent to the Strasbourg Museum have been scrupulously examined by the professors of this be~establishment, and particularly by Mr. Duvernoy. M. Michaud was in charge of determining the shells, among which he found several new species. The batracians are almost all new. There is also a second species of the genus Macrpcelides, of which only one was still known. The history of domestic animals follows that of wild animals those who are used for agricultural work, transport and travel have particularly att~retention of the author.

The third is devoted to the description of the country under consideration as a whole. The& cities that the author has visited are described in the greatest detail, he gives the strength of their population, its particular customs and uses, its industry, its trade and the degree of its education. He says what are the objects that each one exports, ceu~that she receives and those that it would be advantageous to send there. Before talking about the trade of~AIger, he renumerates all the coins, as well as the weights and measures, which are those used throughout the Regency, comparing them to those of France. The history of the Algerian government presents a host of

curious facts entirely unknown, and the account of which is of great interest. The strength of the army, that of your navy, the income and the other resources of the State, are based on exact data, and that we could not have before the capture of Algiers.

Finally, from the perfect knowledge of the localities, their resources and the character of the inhabitants, the author deduces a colonization plan which consists in seizing several points along the coast only, to send there military forces considerable enough to defend a certain extent of land in which the cultivators will settle, and whose radius will be enlarged as necessary. In this way, we will end up having, on the seashore, a colonized strip whose different parts will communicate easily with each other, and which will expand inland as its population increases.

The Atlas gives the topographic map of the country, the customs of the inhabitants, the main points of view, the remarkable edinces, all the species of coins, the weapons, the . tools and pottery.

This Book,~chosen by a man accustomed to observing nature, and who has seen everything for himself, cannot fail to interest the public keenly, at a time when France is making such great sacrifices to preserve one of the most beautiful conquests. that she has ever done, and establish a powerful colony there.

The Work will be divided into three deliveries which will appear from moia in months, from the “March 1833.

Each delivery will consist of a volume of text, paperback with cover printed on colored paper,. and of a part

from the Atlas, i o plates, enclosed in a cover also printed.


PLAIN PAPER iifr VELLUM PAPER, satin double figures drawn on technical paper. 85

~n Mu~rnt) -MM nothing p~~r ~





RELATION OF THE AFRICAN WAR during the years i83o and t83t, by M. Rozét, Captain of the General Staff, 2 vol. in-8″, with map.12t. TRAVELS AND DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTH AND IN THE CENTRAL PARTS OF AFRICA through the great desert, from Kouka to Sackatou, executed, during the years 1822, 1823 and 1824, by Major Denham, Captain Clapperton, and the late Doctor Oudney i translated from English by MESSRS. Eyriès and de la Renaud! era 3 vol. In-8, with a large atlas in-4°. 55 SECOND TRIP TO THE INTERIOR OF AFRICA, from the Gulf of Benin ]usqu~Sackatou, by Captain Clapperton, during the years 1825, 1826 and 1827, followed by Richard Lander’s journey from Kano to the sea coast; translated from English by the same 2 vol. in-8″ adorned with Clapperton’s portrait and two maps engraved by Tardicu. t4









Attacl, i in the Army of Africa as Engineer-C~ograpbe, Member of the Historical Society


The barbarism of the different peoples who inhabit the portion of the African continent between the Atlas and the Mediterranean Sea, combined with the distrust of the bloodthirsty despots who ruled over this beautiful country, has prevented observers until recently from being able to visit it and describe it like so many other parts of the world, which are however much further from Europe.

Almost all the travelers who have been able to penetrate the Barbary States have seen very little for themselves and it is according to the accounts of men whose language they misunderstood, y and whose least defect is to lie, that they have.

composed their books. Some captives who had never lost sight of the walls of Algiers, telling of the evils they had suffered and everything they had seen in this pirate hideout, thought themselves obliged to attach to it the description of the entire regency, as if they had visited the different parts. The European consuls) residing in Barbary, have also published several works on this country but, either they limited themselves to describing the cities in which they lived, or what they said about the rest of the country is very inaccurate. Finally, after the success of the great expedition sent by Charles X to destroy pirates who, for three centuries, had been terrorizing civilized nations) we have seen many memoirs and m~me complete works on the whole regency, written by men who did not~have stayed only two months in Africa and who have traveled only the che-

I was also often accompanied by an Algerian Jew (Salmon) who spoke very good French there, who had traveled a lot in Barbarism and whose greatest merit was a good faith in all tests, which is extremely rare among the Israelites of Algiers.

Salmon answered the questions that I addressed to him and when he did not know what I was asking him, we would go together to question several naturals, whose concordance and divergence of answers fixed my opinion. Not only did Salmon accompany me, but also when he had discovered something he would come to warn me about it, and we would study it together. He gave me information about all the parts of the regency that he visited, and in several of which I went after, I always had the satisfaction of recognizing the accuracy of what he had told me, and that is what committed me to speak, according to

he, from several cities that I have not seen; but, in the narration, I will take great care to warn the reader about it; for my purpose is to give here only the observations that I have made myself and Inaccuracies of which I can answer. It is also from Salmon’s accounts, controlled by those of a few other people, that I was able to know certain particularities about the manners of the different varieties of men who live in the Algerian states and that I made, in large part, the history of the despotic government that oppressed them. I talk about everything in my Book, and one might think from this that I am educated enough to talk about everything; but it is not so that I know some of the branches of natural history, and there are many things that any observer can understand about the peoples he visits, without having studied them specially before.,

For the knowledge that I lack, I resorted to those who possess them. the animals that I collected were sent to the Strasbourg Museum, where the teachers of this beautiful institution, and particularly Mr. Duvernoy, kindly took the trouble to determine them and then send me the names of the different species; as for the habits, I observed them myself..

For the plants, I used the works of several health officers attached to the army and the beautiful work of M. Desfontaines; finally, the. famous doctor Mougeot, from the Vosges, reviewed everything I wrote about botany. The drawings that make up the atlas were taken on the spot by M. de Prébois, staff officer, and me. The costumes were painted in watercolor, and before my eyes, by an Italian artist who made them with great talent.

My work consists of an atlas and three volumes of text, the first contains all the branches of natural history, physical geography and meteorological observations that we made at the Algiers observatory and in the different countries where we stayed for some time. The second is devoted to the history of the seven groups or varieties of the human species that I have distinguished, among the inhabitants of Barbarism in the exposition of their manners and customs and the various diseases that afflict them.

In the third, I describe the country we have traveled, I talk about the population of the cities, I say what their resources are, their industry, and what is special about the customs and customs of the inhabitants for each of them. After describing the country in. the biggest details~ ~e gives the history of the government of-

the poet who tyrannized over him for so long. Finally, I conclude with the presentation of my ideas on the advantages that conquest presents to form a flourishing colony there, and I propose the means that seem to me the most effective to achieve it.

My writings have always had, and will always have as their goal the discovery of the truth and the progress of human knowledge; every man is likely to be mistaken, and especially when he undertakes a task as difficult as mine. These volumes certainly contain a lot of errors, some of which I could have corrected by working on them more, but we get tired of reviewing the same thing so often, and to want to do too well, we sometimes do nothing at all. So I decide to deliver them to the public as they are, and I hire people who will notice the mistakes that I~have committed, on-

all those who now inhabit our possessions in Africa to let me know, so that I can correct them, if this work ever gets the honor of a second edition.


I have mentioned elsewhere (t) the exploits of the African army, and I have made known what has happened in the relations of the French soldiers with the peoples of the countries that they occupied or crossed as victors. I will here give an account of all the observations that I was able to make during my stay in Barbary..

The small portion of this country that I visited is between the degree of eastern longitude, counted from the Paris meridian, the degree of western longitude, the 33rd and (i) Tïc/a~’o~ ~e war~r~MC~

3~degrees of North latitude. It extends along the coast, from Cape Matifou to the east of Algiers, to Cape Falcon, west of Oran and inland around Algiers only, to Médéya, a town located on the other side of the Little Atlas range 16 leagues from Algiers. This portion of Africa, small as it is, however, presented me with a host of curious facts, and the presentation of which may render some services to the sciences at the same time as it will amuse the readers.

Arrived in Algiers, the observer who will go to place himself on the high horse in the middle of the Emperor’s castle, located a quarter of a league southwest of this city, looking from the south side, will see a group of hills, the whole of which presents a very undulating terrain, extending from the East-North to the West-West-South. Beyond these hills, the observer will see the vast plain of the Metidja which extends as far as the eye can see towards the East and towards the West, and which, on the south side, will end at a very high mountain range, the little Atlas, whose direction is substantially parallel to that of the group of hills. Thus, if we want to consider all the hills as a small mountain range, we can say that the plain of the Metidja is’ com-

caught between two chains, which run very roughly from East to West, and of which the Southern one is much higher than the northern one. These two chains come to an end, almost in a straight line to the plain, in which they throw only a few not very extensive forts. The ridge of the Petit Atlas has many cuts; there are several sharp peaks but, in general, the peaks are rounded, and the mountains offer an analogy with those of the Jura range. The sides of these mountains are crisscrossed by numerous and deep valleys, some of which seem to have their origin very far in the interior of the range.

If the observer walks straight to the South, and after crossing the Metidja, he climbs the northern slope of the small Atlas, and transports himself on the crest of this chain, he will see the southern slope steeper than that of the North, and beyond a mass of hills which extends very far to the East, West and South. On this side, he will see, quite on the horizon, a series of peaks that seem to belong to a chain, the great Atlas, similar to the one on which he climbed, and to which the mass of hills seems to extend.

Turning his eyes to the East, he will see, about 2 5 leagues away, a large and very high mountain, Mount Jurjura, with sharp edges and pointed peaks. On the sides of this mountain, the rock is bare, and seems devoid of vegetation. To the south-west, our observer will notice several very high peaks, the most distant of which, which must be on the borders of the empire of Morocco, has the shape of a sugar loaf. It is towards this point that the two chains of the Atlas converge; it seems to be the node. If now the observer, having descended from the Atlas, walks along the coast from Cape Matifou, east of Algiers, to Cape Falcon, west of Oran, he will first travel a semicircular baM, bordered by the small hills that border the plain of the Metidja to the north, and which come to an end at a narrow beach, the portion closest to the sea is covered with sands, forming here and there a few dunes, mainly near the mouth of the streams. On leaving Algiers, he will still find a small bay 600 meters in diameter, and above which rises abruptly the summit of Mount Bou-Zaria which is a large isolated mountain in the middle of the group of hills, and whose t

the last counter-fort, on the North side-~West, forms the Cape Caxine y located two leagues west of Algiers. On the other side of this cape, the small hills border the coast, along which we find here and there some dunes, up to the mountain of Chenouah 20 leagues from Algiers. It is at the foot of this mountain that the pretty little town of Cherchel is located. From this point, we see a very high chain, quite similar to the small Atlas, reigning along the coast, and forming steep cliffs, up to 25 leagues to the west at Cape Ivi, very near the town of Moustàganem, located at the mouth of a large river, the C% Over a space of 25 leagues, from the~capi~att Cap Ferrat which shelters to the west the Bay of Ar~ëo, the ground is quite flat; but from~u cap Ferrat, the recommet mountains~ceMt and continue to beyond Oran. Among these mountains, we distinguish that of Cap Ferrat to which the sailors give the name of Piton, and Mont Saint-Augustin, 4 leagues to the west, which rises abruptly above the sea. We then pass in front of Cape Canastel, which forms the eastern limit of the Bay of Oran. This bay, shallow, is bordered by craggy cliffs, but the terrain that is located at the-

it is flat, except for the west coast, where we see the Rammra mountains whose foot is bathed by the sea, rising abruptly to~80 meters above its level. After Oran, these mountains revolve around a semi-circular bay, 5, ooo meters in diameter, and form the famous haven of Mers-el-Kebir. At the ex”North-western extremity of this bay, and at the foot of the mountain, the Spaniards have built very beautiful fortifications. Still going west, the Rammra Mountains continue to go along! side by side up to a league from the fort Mers-el-Kebir. But then the chain turns to the West, the coast runs to the Northwest and goes a league further to form a steep point, which is Cape Fat”con. The space between the coast and the chaiïx; is a very extensive plain and slightly on~dulée.

Arrived in Oran, if the observer climbs to Fort Santa-Crux located on one of the peaks of the Rammra, immediately above the city, on a fine day, he will see distinctly, with the naked eye on the north side, the mountains of the coast of Spain, and turning to the South, East and West sides, he will see the Rammra Mountains extending far away towards

the South-west, and a vast plain, presenting here and there a few small hillsides, go as far as the Atlas range, which is eight leagues south of Oran, about the same distance as it is from Algiers. Two leagues away~from Oran, the terrain lowers a little so that there is a plain between the Oran plateau and the Atlas quite similar to that of the Metidja. This plain contains two large lakes which~are at.~ec during the Celebration, and that we see very much . distinctly from the ruins of the fort of Santa-Crux.

bitans of the. countries that have often visited them. The main city of Barbary is~’Algiers the Warrior; capital 4th the regency of this name; it is located on the edge of the sea at. o”~2′ 35″ of eastern longitude (t)~up to 36″~a5~of North latitude. Campaign~. around this yille, is covered with a large quantity of very pretty pleasure houses. In the interior, eleven leagues south-Southeast of Algiers is Belida, built at the foot of the small Atlas in the middle of superb orange gardens. To the north, and five leagues from Belida, on the other side of the plain, we discover~on the southern slope. small hills that border the sea, el Colea.; city a little. less considerable Thanbelida/ and around which there are no orange gardens but orchards planted with trees similar to those of our Provence.

. Belida is located at the outlet in the plain of a primordial valley of the small Atlas. If we follow this valley by a very difficult path that runs along the flank, we meet. what-

(t) I count all the longitudes from the Paris meridian.

groups of cabins, and after crossing the chain we arrive, after a four-hour walk, in Médéya, a town whose construction and the surrounding countryside make us forget that we are in Africa and remind us of the villages of the Châlonnaise coast in the department of Saône-et-Loire. Fifteen leagues to the West of Medea~there is still a rather considerable town named Meliana~but in which I could not penetrate.

If y instead of moving inland, we follow the coast as we go. towards the West; oh will find several rather considerable cities but among which I have only been able to visit Oran~built in the bottom of a tower, at. 80 leagues to the West-West –South of Algiers. I saw That! very closely passing along the coast but as for the other Tefessady, Moustaganem and Arzéo, I did not only see them.

Barbarism was invaded by the Romans in the heyday of the Republic. These masters of the world had formed a flourishing colony there, from which they derived many grains and fruits; numerous ruins announce that they had built superb cities there,

and forts to shelter themselves from the races of the peoples of the Atlas that they could never completely subdue. We met several Roman constructions in the vicinity of Algiers~’and up to the other side of~u little Atlas. At Cape Ntatifbu,. the walls of the plus . big part . houses of the ancient Rustonium rise above the brushwood that covers the earth on the roads. Oran and Constantine. we still see standing columns, hundreds and aqueducts along the capes Caxine and Sydi-Efroudj, perfectly preserved cisterns, remains of walls and an aqueduct in’ good condition, announce’ peoples other than the Romans and maybe even’ of the Gauls, .. because it exists near there.. two grottpes of monumens. druidics absolutely the same as those that we meet in several parts of France finally, on the hills, west of el Colea we see a mound that the Arabs call~Gentleman-

plain from South to North arriving at the foot of the hills they make a more or less large bend, and then go through a cut to get to the sea; I will give the description of each of these streams.

L’~am~it has its mouth in the Bay of Algiers, near Cape Matifou 1,000 meters west of the ruins of Rustonium; it is directed first for some time to the East, but then it bends at a right angle, and we follow it with the eye to the foot of the Atlas, from where it comes following the direction of the meridian. This river is not very considerable, it never dries up, but it can be forded almost everywhere the bottom of its bed is muddy, which makes the water bad to drink.

L’~v~exits the small Atlas through a valley that happens to be precisely in the direction of the Algiers meridian. It runs from South to North crossing the plain of the Metidja arrived at the foot of the hills, it receives the OuadKerma stream., which starts from Mount Bou-Zaria, and describes a semicircle as it flows to the Southeast. At this point the Arrach bends, heads to the Northeast, receives a second stream that comes out of the hills, then a third that

comes from the plain then resumes the direction of the meridian, and, passing through a cut of the strip of hills, will throw itself into the sea. The Arrach flows between two very steep banks, its bottom is almost everywhere muddy on only a few points there is gravel the amount of water is quite considerable, but nowhere do the horses that cross it have it up to their bellies, not even in the rainy season. Although a little bland, the water of the Arrach is however good to drink.

The Bou-Farik river comes out of the Atlas through the gorge in front of which Belida is built, it goes to the North-Northeast, receives several streams crossing the plain and will flow into the Mazafran near el Colea. This river is just a strong stream, the largest width of which is 4 meters. Until it has reached the middle of the plain it flows on a bottom of pebbles and compact clay; then its water is very good to drink but then it crosses a marshy terrain to its mouth, and the water is no longer good.

The Chiffa. At 6,000 meters west of Belida, we meet a bed more than 400 meters wide, whose bottom is covered with laurels-

roses and lentisci the banks are very high especially on the eastern side where they are often almost 40 meters high; in the middle of this vast bed passes a stream 20 to 3o meters wide, at the time of heavy rains and melting snow. It is the Chiffa, which flows from South to North crossing the plain and will meet at the Afroun a little west of el Colea, as I will say soon. Coming out of the Atlas, this river meets the Ouad-elKebir which comes from the Belida gorge, flowing into a very wide and very deep ravine. In the middle of the plain, it receives a stream that comes to it from the Mouzaya mountains, and to which several others have joined which originate in the plain. The Chiffa flows everywhere on a bottom of sand and gravel; its speed is very high and its water excellent to drink the quantity is never very considerable, although it does not dry up. In the month of January, after eight days of heavy rain, and at the time of the melting of the Atlas snows, our soldiers, crossing the Chiffa, had water only up to the middle of the thigh.

The Ouad-jer or~/ROM~. If we continue to follow the foot of the mountains by walking towards

rOuest~we will meet, three leagues from the Chiffa, a wide and very steep ravine which follows a large valley of the A tlas, in the bottom of which flows a strong stream that the Arabs name~/roM/z and 0~a; this is the great place of which several travelers have given us such a pompous description. Its bed is more than 100 meters wide and it is extremely deep but during the rainy season and when all the snows melted, I crossed this river on ten different points by walking on the rolled pebbles that are in its bed however it retains water throughout the year. A little before entering the plain~Afroun receives a stream that descends from the Tenia Pass which we will talk about soon. It crosses this plain heading north, arrives at the foot of the hills, a little east of the Kabr-er-Roumiah, turns sharply to the East, flows along the hills between two very close banks~but it doesn’t matter and comes to meet with the Chiffa to the point that I have already indicated when talking about it.

wide and bordered by high banks; a league away they receive the river of Bou-Farik turn sharply to the north, and, heading through a deep valley, go to the sea after having received four small streams that come out of the flanks of this valley. Coming out of the mountains the course of the Afroun is quite fast the water, which rolls on a gravel bottom, is of excellent quality but after crossing the plain, this river loses all its speed; it barely flows in the narrow bed of which I have already spoken the muddy bottom of this bed makes the water very bad. The Mazafran flows almost everywhere, and quite quickly, on a sandy bottom although there is mud here and there on its banks, the water is very good. This river is 20 to 25 meters wide nevertheless it is shallow a rider can cross it on all points where the escarpment of the banks does not prevent him from approaching.

Going to Médéya by the road of the Tenia pass, the one followed by the French army in its expedition against this city, we meet several streams that have water at all times those. who are north of the Pass will all

meeting in the bottom of a valley that certainly flows into the Afroun; but, for those who are in the South and who are heading sometimes to the East and sometimes to the West, I don’t know where they will end up, it is likely that they will go to the Chiffa and the Afroun. As for those in the vicinity of Medea~it has been argued that they were Atnuans of the Chelif, without knowing in any way if the Chelif passes in this country.

Between the Arrach and the Mazafran, there are several small streams along the coast of which I have not mentioned. These streams almost all start from the foot of the mountain of Bou-Zaria which dominates Algiers to the East two flow into the sea between the Arrach and Algiers a third, FOuadKerma, goes to the plain, then into the Arrach; and all the others flow into the sea between Algiers and Mazafran.

underground, walk to the North, following a narrow but very steep ravine, which runs along the foot of the mountains 1,000 meters~before entering Orau, at a place called the J~/ïtaine a lateral opening made to the duct allows a portion of the water to escape to flow into the bottom of the valley, to water the gardens located there, to make jto~rner several mills, and then throw themselves into the sea the rest, led by the aqueduct on the western flank of the city, goes to a basin from which the water is then distributed throughout the city.

There is still a fairly strong stream near Oran, whose water was also brought by a conduit to the village of Kerguenta, located to the east next to this town; but, during my stay, this conduit had been broken, the water had flowed into the bottom of the valley, which is 40 meters from the eastern end of this village, and went to the sea by flowing from Southeast to Northeast. The two streams I have just mentioned have water all year round.

about three leagues to the south of the city, it seems to have several leagues of extent from East to West; the other, which can be seen a league and a half to the southeast, is elliptical, its major axis, which is placed in the direction of the meridian may have 2,000 meters in length.

Танцует в провинции Альгер, я не могу понять, что происходит в двух местах, танцует на площади Метиджи, в окружении колоний, по отношению к Кабр-эр-Румии, с тем, чтобы сохранить красоту, которую он привез с собой в Анне; в пресс-службе кап-Матифу, где есть сале и коммюнике авэк ла мер по сравнению с канальным крезом для мужчин. Я рассматриваю седерниеркомм в старинном марэ, салютующем в пабликах среди жителей Рустонии; я выступаю на бис в знак уважения к старинному городу.

Что касается лаков и принципов, то, конечно, я наблюдаю за варварами, но не за их героями, а за искусством, достойным восхищения, и не вижу никаких признаков того, что происходит на поверхности солнца.

Это не единственная точка соприкосновения с порядком в ансиеннете, где я описываю различные группы рош, которые находятся рядом с вами в данный момент! часть Африки, где я живу в парке, – это способ общения, который является естественным для выбора. Это первая роль, которую играют эти группы, участвующие в генеральной конституции, которая платит за то, что я – феррари коннетр. При наблюдении~Mr~за варварской местностью переходного периода, второй по счету территорией вулканических образований, разбавленной местностью и различными образованиями, относящимися к эпохе фактических дюн, на пересеченной местности и т.д~oM~e~M~Я не знаю, как описать эти местности, чтобы убедиться, что они имеют значение для масс, составляющих их.

Горы малого Атласа, где нет никаких проблем с границей на юге, на равнине Метиджи, где нет места для размышлений о том, что такое плюс-минус два цента, что такое долгая жизнь и что такое жизнь в шесть раз больше, не свершившийся факт, что меридиан находится под углом~о° а~5~проблемы с судьбой на востоке; точки зрения, а также проблемы с детьми, которые путешествуют по Китаю на территории трибун Музайи и Бени-Сала. Се сын соммеца в округе, который является высокопоставленным лицом, я, 65 лет, занимаюсь десертом в ниво в Средиземном море, танцую в порту Алжира (i) и другие вопросы, связанные с десертом в долине реки Пьер~. Часть из этих пунктов, о том, как я решаю, кто победит, а кто проиграет, указывает на то, что не имеет отношения к капитану Мати-

( i ) Я являюсь частью ниво-де-ла-мер, танцующей в порту Алжира, в поисках высоких точек для расчетов, танцующей на части платит, прилегающей к территории города

, чтобы не отвечать на вопросы, я имею в виду абсолютное высокое, я хочу, чтобы ты доминировал в кол-де-Тения, тройка лжецов на юго-востоке Бени-Сала.

Сборка диванов-пьерреусов, как вход в композицию для вечеринки в маленьком атласе, как учебное пособие, наклон с учетом угла наклона, изменяющийся и увеличивающий общий размер, как при подборе сомме, так и при определении точек, где диваны расположены горизонтально и под углом наклона к плюсу. де 60″ авэк л’горизонт. Вход в версант на юг, пара красивых мест, а также возможность посетить северную часть версанта, проехать по дороге до точки са, плюс грандиозное возвышение, возможно, на поверхности есть австралийский пляж, который находится на побережье.

Я не могу быть наблюдателем за шеей маленького Атласа в поисках долгой жизни в 3о, ООО “Метрес сеулмент”, депутат трибуны Бени-Мейсера, на востоке. де Белида, юскуа-ла-валле-де-Афрун, дебютант на равнине, 18 000 метров на юго-востоке города. Я принимаю участие в массе горных композиций марнских сланцевых пород, альтернативных стратегиям марнских калькаров. На марне нет ни одной крупной кассы кончоида, ни одной ячейки общества в Европе; все, что связано с этим миром.-

formed by veins of spathic limestone and hydrated iron, these veins also penetrate into the limestone. This one also has a conchoid fracture, it is sometimes fissile its color varies from gray to black; the strata are never more than o”%5 thick. It is towards the lower part of the formation that the limestone dominates. It contains subordinate layers of macigno. Sometimes it becomes brecciform (Mouzaya) and even passes to a real breach composed of small fragments.

The schistose marls, which dominate in the second part of the formation, are quite the same as those of our European lias they still contain layers of gray limestone and others of an extremely hard whitish rock, which is a calcareous flint. In the mountains of Beni-Sala, these marls are cut by veins of white quarz approaching the ridge, we see them harden and pass by degrees to a phyllade similar to that of the transitional terrain, and which does not always effervesce in nitric acid. On the southern slope of the Beni-Sala mountains this phyllade becomes a real slate phenomenon which is quite the same as that observed by

M. E. from Beaumont, in the Tarentaise Alps.

Organic remains are extremely rare in the rocks I have just described; I have found only fragments of oysters, some~

Mineral species are scarce in the limestone-marl formation of the Atlas. However, we found on the road to Medea, a league south of the Tenia pass, copper minerals in fairly large quantities. These ores form veins whose heads protrude several meters above the shale marls that enclose them. These veins are composed of carbonate iron, a lot of gray copper and mala. chite, accompanied by a little blue carbonate, in a gangue of laminar sulphated barite. The most considerable vein is almost vertical. Its power varies from o”~5 to i meter. It is uncovered for a length of 100 meters, and copper is found there in large enough quantities that it can be exploited with advantage. He may have needed some research to

to discover immense riches in this locality but they will be impossible for a long time, in the middle of a desert country and exposed to the races of the most cruel hordes.

The mountains formed by the training calcaréo-marly are extremely high, as we have already said; and they have little escarpemens almost everywhere embankments are formed. Following the line of the made, one meeting of rounded peaks and ridges strong, narrow; branches, and the counter-forts of the chain are telminés by plateaux somewhat extended. The two versans have narrow, deep valleys, and in addition an infinite number of furrows produced by the waters that have raviné the marne. Many excellent springs come out of these mountains, and many streams meander in the bottom of the valleys.

The portion of the small Atlas that I visited is’ quite poorly cultivated, but everywhere the vegetation is very active the brushwood that covers most of it is often two meters high. We will talk, in another article, about the vegetation of these mountains in more detail.

The gray and black limestones that alternate with

shale marls can provide excellent hydraulic lime, but they are not used. The strongest layers give fairly good building stones. The phyllade can very well be used as a slate the Arabs and the Berbers remove very solid plates from it, one centimeter thick and two r~of length that they use in the construction of tombs, to make stair treads and cross supports. These plates are brought to Algiers, where they are used for the same purposes. If we were masters of the country, we could take advantage of the copper mines because the surrounding mountains are covered with woods and an abundant stream flows in the bottom of a valley, a few steps from the veins.


Several of the last forts of the Petit t Atlas, on the edges of the plain of the Metidja, are formed by a yellowish limestone sandstone, or a coarse ferruginous limestone, divided into layers which dip slightly to the north in the opposite direction to those of the lias, and which alternate with more or less ferruginous sands. This in-

many layers are based on a blue marl a little paler than that of the lias which is not schistose, but which is divided into irregular fragments. This marl mixes so well with water, that it is used to make bricks and pottery; we meet, in its interior, laminar gypsum it contains some decomposed shells; we see in the (limestone oysters and eggs~v~.

When we have reached the foot of the southern slope of the Atlas, we have in front of us an immense mass of hills that extends very far to the South as well as to the East and West, along the chain. These hills, some of which reach i, 200 meters above sea level, and only 200 to 30 meters above the valleys that pass at their foot, are all constituted by the same tertiary terrain which shows itself in tatters on the north side. This terrain is absolutely the same as that which is found in Italy, on each side of the Apennines. We notice two floors there, the blue marl of which I have just spoken, constitutes the oldest; here, it acquires an extremely considerable power it sometimes exceeds 200 meters. This marl immediately covers the phyllades of the lias, thus

than her marls, with which she seems to be confused on several points. It sometimes contains subordinate strata of marly limestone, it is never stratified or schistose, but it is divided into an infinity of highly irregular fragmens. We notice a lot of veins of laminar and lamellar gypsum there; but I have never seen them in great enough abundance to deserve to be exploited. The organic remains that I observed are marine shells, combs and bucards so crumbly, that I could not get a single whole one.

The blue marl is covered by a powerful base of limestone sandstone strata, or coarse limestone with corals, alternating with yellow and sometimes red sands. The sandstone also takes on this color, it is then very ferruginous. The power of this second stage varies from 20 to 5o meters it is rarely missing. The layers that compose it incline to the North, at an angle that hardly exceeds 20 °, they are sometimes horizontal. The subatlantic tertiary sandstone is filled with an immense amount of large oysters (Ostrea c/o/z~z~) quite identical, with those found in its analogue in Pro-

vence and in Italy. We also meet gnes and pectuncles there. Despite all my research, I could not discover a single fragment of fish or quadruped bones there. The limestone, which sometimes becomes compact, contains a lot of corals, as in Austria and Hungary. The oysters lie in the mass of the sandstone, but more particularly in the middle of the sands interposed between the layers. We find them grouped several together, most have preserved their two valves which proves that they are still now in the place where they lived formerly. I measured a few that were o”5 in length.

The second stage of the subatlaiitic tertiary terrain contains no minerals other than not very considerable hydrated iron veins. The whole country that the French army has traversed to the south of the little Atlas is occupied “by the tertiary terrain as I have just described it; and, judging by the analogy of the shapes of the hills, which I discovered at a very great distance, I presume that it extends much further still. It must fill all the basins between the different mountain ranges drawn on Colonel Lapie’s map, up to the great desert

Sahara. The sands of this desert are perhaps something other than those that are found sometimes in the upper part of this formation, and below which the sandstone and the limestone exist in horizontal layers covering them. the marne blue, and that is why water is so scarce in this region. But, if it is so, crossing the sands and the mass of the limestone, they would get well very abondans may be property of the geyser springs. The hills subatlantiques have rounded shapes, they include them deep valleys where the sides are extremely cut by the waters, who are continuously working in the marls. From these hills come out a number of excellent sources, including the average temperature is i/f. These sources give rise to an endless array of creeks and a few small rivers that will sprinkle the bottom of the valleys, where there is pasture and gardens.

The subatlantic tertiary terrain seems not very suitable for vegetation the surroundings of Médéya are quite well cultivated a few hills to the south of this city, are half covered with brushwood but, almost everywhere else

the eye is struck by an awful aridity in places where the marl is on the surface of the ground there is not only grass.

This marl is used for the manufacture of tiles, bricks and pottery. The sandstone used stones to build it is with them that have been elevated to the roman buildings that we found the ruins near Médéya. The Berbers are the lime with the limestone coarse.

I’ve seen a Médéya gypsum giving a white plaster excellent, as was told to me to come from a quarry located two miles East of this city, and I have not been able to go and visit. I think that this rock is interspersed in the tertiary terrain.

All the mass of the hills~which borders to the north the great plain of the Metidja, and which we observed from Cape Matifou to a league west of el Colea is formed by the subatlantic tertiary terrain, composed of the same rocks arranged in the same way as in the south of the Atlas but here the layers sometimes tilt to the South mainly in the vicinity of Algiers. Fossils are more abundant, they are often found there by fa-

mileage~these are~e~M~gryphites (Ostrea navicularis), large oysters, but very different from those of the Atlas (ï) of~ro~~terebratules, echinitis and several polyps.

The mineral species are the same as Inmedeya. Coarse limestones with corals are taking a great development in the vicinity of Algiers~where the Moors use it to make lime.

The springs are always very numerous and the water excellent but a remarkable fact is that the tertiary terrain of the hills bordering the sea is much more favorable to vegetation than that located beyond the Atlas on all points where the hills are not cultivated they are covered with olive woods or very strong brushwood. Could it be the influence of the sea, or rather the temperature difference? This is a question that I will try to solve later. (v) They are rounded instead of elongated and much less large.

Following the seashore from SydiEfroudj to Algiers, we see the limestones and tertiary sandstones resting horizontally on the edge of the sheets of a talcous shale, quite the same as that found on the coast of France in the vicinity of Toulon. This shale forms the main mass of Mount Bou-Zaria, and the hill on the slope of which Algiers is built it extends to the west to the Bab-Azoun fort then it will constitute the cliff of Cape Matifou. On the south side, it extends to the hill of the Emperor’s castle, and we find it in all the ramifications that Mount Bou-Zaria throws on this side. We can see on several points the tertiary terrain covering, with discordant stratification, that of transition. The talcous shale, which makes up the main mass of this formation, presents itself in sheets, never in layers, strongly inclined to the horizon and always plunging towards the south like the strata of the Atlas. This sehist is shiny or sublucent; he often passes to a very well characterized micaschist


especially in its upper parts. The whole mass is cut by an infinity of veins of white quarz and smoky quarz there are some veins of phtanite and very thin beds of white feldspar. The talcous shale sometimes passes to a feldspathic shale; which itself becomes a well-characterized gneiss (BabAzoun and surroundings of the Emperor’s castle). Some strata of saccharoid and sublamellar gray limestone are found subordinated in the shale. This rock also forms, in all the mountains that are east of Algiers, a mass whose power exceeds 100 meters, which is subordinate in the formation of talcous schists. The limestone is often schistose, and then it passes to shale by insensitive degrees the stratification is very regular; the strata, whose thickness does not exceed o”%5, are separated from each other by shale beds with which they bond intimately they plunge to the South at an angle that rarely exceeds 5o~. The limestone and the schist beds interposed between its layers often contain a fairly large amount of small flakes of pyrite iron. The limestone subordinate to the schists sometimes becomes very white (som5.

near Mount Bou-Zaria, cliff near the windmills of Bab-el-Ouad old quarry near the cemetery of the Jews). Here, there are still fragments of layers that have been exploited and from which we had to extract quite beautiful marble. We find in talcous schists a lot of small imperfect macle crystals (montBou-Zaria), an immense quantity of small garnets which make it a real grenatic schist (pointe Pescade), quarz in veins and veins~M~? pyrite in disseminated parts,

In the cliff of Cap Matifou, the talcous shale passes to the micaschist; there are still limestone layers that slope strongly to the south. We notice feldspar veins with large mica blades when the mica blades decrease, the rock becomes a gneiss. I recognized two anthracite veins there, the most considerable power of which does not exceed o”%5 sometimes the shale is impregnated with carbon. We notice on the entire surface of the cliff small veins of hydrated iron, which

intersect in all directions and form a very singular protruding network. Here the tertiary terrain composed of blue sandstone and powder marl, containing many schist fragments, rests in horizontal layers on the edge of the schists. But, along the cliff, we also see the sandstone and the layers of the puddings incline towards the Northeast~and come to abut against the schist layers. This is the result of the appearance of a pyrogenic rock, which I will talk about below.

The power of the shale group exceeds 400 meters, its stratification is very irregular; we notice a lot of folds and contouring. The mountains that it constitutes rise up to~10 meters (montBou-Zaria) above sea level which bathes the foot. These mountains have rounded ridges and very fast sides. They are separated from each other by deep valleys in which small streams flow, which almost all dry up during the summer, although they are fed by a large number of springs. The schist soil is rather poorly cultivated but the strength of the vegetation is very great the brushwood is high and very thick the

inhabited country, and especially the bottom of the valleys, presents a forest of orange trees, pomegranate trees, fig trees, etc., in the middle of which a few palm trees rise majestically and which are divided into several enclosures, superb hedges of agaves, whose stems rise above all the other trees.

The Moors make no use of the talcous shales of which. I have just spoken; however, I believe that by digging to a certain depth, especially in the suburb of Bab-Azoun, very close to the site where the cattle market is held, we would get some small pieces that would provide a slate of excellent quality. The gray limestone gives very good building stones the veined portions could provide quite pretty marbles. It is for the manufacture of lime that the Moors particularly use the transition limestone; this rock is the one that is baked in all the lime kilns of Bab-el-Ouad, it gives a greasy lime that can only form hydraulic mortars with calcined materials (pozzolans, etc.). White marble was formerly used for funerary monuments and in the constructions of~AIger but today his ex-

ploitation is completely abandoned I think we could resume it with advantage. The garnets are too small and the galena veins too rare and too thin, for us to take advantage of them. By making excavations in the cliff of Cape Matifou at the place where the anthracite veins show themselves, we might be able to discover a large amount of this fuel.

In the escarpment of the cliff, between the Bab-Azoun gate and the fort of the same name, the talcous shale passes, by insensitive degrees~to a brown micaschist which contains thin beds of white feldspar, some of which are loaded with mica and thus pass to gneiss. Sometimes the micaschist takes charge of feldspar, and becomes ‘m real gneiss. This last rock here covers the micaschist, with which it is intimately linked by concordant stratification, and it then takes on a considerable development. In the hollow path, at the foot of the Emperor’s castle~we see the talcous shale gradually loading with feldspar, talc

goes to mica and the rock becomes a gneiss well characterized, which still covers the shale stratification concurring and goes to 6 and 800 metres away form the hills that surround the fort to the south and South-West, and on which were established in the batteries French during the attack of the same fort.

The dominant rock, in this second stage of the transition terrain, is a very feldspatbic gneiss, composed of white mica rarely brown, in small blades, and whitish feldspar, in large glands or large imperfect crystals. Sometimes the mica flakes and the feldspar grains become very small, and we have layers of leptynite intercalated in the mass, we also see the mica disappear and the feldspar remain alone then the rock is formed of prismatic masses of different sizes placed next to each other. This variety breaks down easily and gives a bad. kaolin.

The stratification of the gneiss is very irregular; we notice a lot of folds there, the apparent layers dip to the South, at an angle that varies from 20 ° to 50 °. We do not see any subordinate strata of foreign rocks in the mass of the

gneiss but there are veins of the lower micaschist, which proves that despite the appearance, this rock is less ancient than the gneiss, which covers it however.

The mineral species scattered in the Algiers gneiss are white and smoky quarz forming numerous veins of feldspar~Mr/a lot of tourmaline crystals and superb white mica blades, in some localities only, mainly in the vicinity of Fort Bab-Azoun, veins of hydroxide iron (Sydi-Efroudj), and some traces of green carbonate copper.

The gneiss presented me with no trace of organic remains, the mountains that it constitutes are lower than those of the schists, but they almost do not differ from them for the shapes.

The springs are rare in the soil occupied by the gneiss, and the vegetation is not very active there are hardly any cacti, agaves and a few carob trees.

The rock that I have just described occupies a narrow strip that extends from East to West; it starts from the edges of the sea~in front of the Bab-Azoun fort, passes to the south of the Em castle-

pereur~then forms the main summits of Mount Bou-Zaria, descends along the coast, where it is seen covering the schists on several points, disappears with them under the tertiary terrain and meets again on the hill of SydiEfroudj, which it constitutes in its entirety, as well as all the rocks that are in the sea around this cape, with the same characters as in the vicinity of Algiers its layers also incline towards the South. If we walk perpendicular to the direction of the gneiss strata, we see them everywhere covered with transgressive stratification by tertiary limestones and sandstones.

The Moors do not use gneiss for any purpose; it could be used as a building stone and for the establishment of roads.

I did not recognize any traces of volcanic rocks in the entire portion of the Atlas that I visited, nor are there any in the plain of the Metidja from the Arrach to t’afroun; as for the strip of hills that borders this plain to the north, it is not~that in Cape town

Matifou in the cliff and very close to the fort, that we see gray trachytes coming out of the tertiary ground. There is a rather curious fact to the west of the fort, all the layers of the limestone that rests on the blue marl are perfectly horizontal at the place where the trachytes came out, a fault has formed, and the layers are now inclined to the northeast at an angle of t5o to 20 °. The trachyte of Matifou is a petro-siliceous rock containing small white feldspar crystals and brown mica flakes it is a trachytic porphyry. The Arabs did not use this porphyry for any purpose.

In the middle of the ruins of Rustonium we find fragments of porous lava that come from ancient millstones. These lavas may have been brought from Italy, however all the stones used by the Romans, in the constructions of this city, were taken on the same place, or in the vicinity of Algiers. This reason would make me suspect the existence of basaltic formations, not far from Cape Matifou, in the portion of the country that I could not visit. I also found in the courtyard of the Square House, located above the Arrach bridge,

a piece of grindstone made with a trachytic porphyry containing many glassy feldspar crystals I don’t know where this rock can come from.

The entire soil of the plain of the Metidja is formed by a terrain of alluvium composed of horizontal layers of a gray clayey marl and rolled pebbles, among which we never find large blocks of stones. All this plain, particularly to the west of the Chiffa, is cut by beds of ancient torrens extremely wide, and whose steep banks make it very possible to study the geognostic constitution everywhere the layers of marl and pebbles are perfectly horizontal, the thickness of these layers varies according to the localities; in one place the marls dominate, in another it is the stony debris. The nature of the marl is about the same everywhere but that of the pebbles changes; along the Atlas and up to nearly two leagues in the plain from the mountains of BeniMeissera to the bed. from the Chiffa, they are

mixed phyllades of schistose marl, fragments of quarz and black and gray limestone; from the Chiffa to beyond the Ouad-jer, we find only limestone and marly limestone~and schistose marls; rolled fragments of these same rocks, and whose size decreases by walking in the direction of the current of the water also cover the beds of rivers and torrens. This phenomenon is very apparent along the course of the Chiffa; at the foot of the mountains we find, in the bed of this river, very large blocks and rolled pebbles whose size varies from that of the head to that of the fist, and four leagues away, at its junction with the Ouad jer, they are nothing more than gravels, the largest of which are like pigeon’s eggs along the strip of hills, the pebbles of the Diluvian terrain come partly from the transitional terrain and partly from tertiary limestones and sandstones. I did not find any bones of large animals or any organic debris in the alluvium of the Metidja, however I examined them with great care on several points very far from each other. The topsoil layer~who has often rained-

several feet thick, is always formed by the diluvial marl this marl is compact and it is rather difficult to penetrate by the water from there comes that we meet in the plain several springs and small streams; there are also stagnant waters which do not all disappear during the summer.

The soil of the plain of the Metidja rises as we approach the small Atlas. At the place where the Mazafran turns to the north to enter the gorge that leads it to the sea, the ground is 23 meters above the level of this sea, and five leagues further south at the Haush of the Aga, at the foot of the Demuzaya Mountains~it rises to i6y meters; which gives a level difference of i~meters between the North side and the South side.

The Arrach and the Chiffa are the two main rivers of the portion of the plain that we were able to explore. The dividing line between these two rivers is an o~s-d’àne poorly pronounced which is more than 25,000 meters from the Chiffa, and 6~000 only from FArrâch. At the foot of the hills, this line rises only 25 meters above sea level, and at the foot of the Atlas its elevation is 167 meters-

very. In the basins of these two rivers, there are, as I have already said, low lands, the waters of which cannot flow. From there, the marshes so numerous on the very edges of the Arrach and which form along the hills an almost continuous strip, which begins at the height of the farm of the bey d’Oran, and extends more than three leagues west of el Colea. These marshes are hardly found only in the northern part of the plain, very close to the hills but beyond the soil is quite dry; it must, however, excluding the edges of the stream of Bou Farik, who are almost everywhere marshy.

The plain of the Métidja is generally well cultivated; but the vigour of the plants that grow announces how much it is likely to fertility. Along the Atlas mountains, we encounter the brush extremely strong, the wood of olive trees beautiful, and cultivated parts give abundant harvests.

The marl clay is very specific to the manufacture of the p~ef has a great use in the construction of Belida and el Colea, comine we’ll talk more down.

j~r~e red, along the coast and at the foot

from the mountains from Cape Caxine to the Arracha there is a narrow plain~interrupted sometimes by forts that advance into the sea, the soil of which is almost everywhere formed by the diluvial marl, which often agglutinates fragments of mica schist gneiss, talcous shale and limestone. These fragmens are sometimes found there arranged in horizontal layers (on the road to Constantine, west of the Bab-Azoun fort), we also notice very large blocks but among all these debris, I did not see a single piece that did not belong to the neighboring mountains. From FArrach to the fort of Bab-Azoun, the diluvial marl differs little from that of the Metidja, but from this point to Cape Caxine, it takes on a very pronounced red color. There are escarpments and ravine beds at the foot of Mount BouZaria, where the red marl has more than 10 meters of power. Its mass is not stratified, but sometimes divided into several seats by benches of rolled pebbles.

I found no trace of organic remains in this marl, I think it is not very suitable for vegetation, the soil it occupies is almost always arid.

The red marl is used by the Algerians for the manufacture of the mortar which they used and still use in all their constructions. They mix it with lime, instead of sand, which they do not use. We will talk about this in detail when we deal with the arts.

Travertine. On the sides of the mountains, on the side of the sea, we see jagged layers of travertine deposited on the surface of ancient rocks, and which seem to have come out through the holes and cracks that still exist in these rocks. Along the coast, on the edge of the schists with limestone, there is a layer of ferruginous travertine filled with an infinity of marine shells that have passed into the spathic state, and which are quite the same as those that still live today in the sea, at the very foot of the cliffs, of which the travertine occupies the top. These shell rocks form, all along the coast, a very narrow and often interrupted strip, which never rises more than 25 meters above sea level.


The products of the present time are not very developed on the Barbary coast; to the right and left of the mouth of the Arrach, there are two masses of dunes not very extensive and in. inside which we meet the marine shells that still live on the beach, mixed there with the terrestrial shells of the area between Cape Caxine and the tip of Sydi-Efroudj, there is a strip of dunes that extends over a length of more than a league and which reaches on some points a height of 60 meters above sea level. Marine shells and terrestrial shells are still found in the sand of these dunes. The general direction of these masses of dunes is from the North-West to the South-East, precisely that of the wind which reigns most often and with the most force in the country.

The sand that forms the dunes is extremely fine and completely identical with that of the beach. There is no water in their interior, however they are not devoid of vegetation we notice a lot of lentiscus bushes, and some herbaceous plants.

The dunes are moving very slowly inland, however those to the west of the mouth of the Arrach have already invaded part of the road to Constantine, which passes at the foot of the hills; but I think we could fix them quite easily. In the small coves that are located along the coasts, the sea accumulates sands that form small banks, but do not rise into dunes. These sands contain the debris of the marine shells that live on the coast. A small sandy beach borders the bay of Algiers, from Fort Matifou to the cliffs of Fort Bab-Azoun.

Now that we are well aware of the geognostic constitution of the portion of the country traversed by the French army in the vicinity of Algiers and on the other side of the little Atlas, we can venture some conjectures on the possibility of establishing Artesian wells there, which would be of great use for agriculture; but before, I think it necessary to say a few words on the theory of these wells. The water that falls on the surface of the earth penetrates into its interior until it finds a clay layer that stops it. If this layer offers a concavity, the water accumulates there, ends up filling it; and then, escaping through the cracks that communicate with the reservoir, it will go to lower places,

by flowing over clayey layers until it comes to dull on the surface of the globe, or it finds a rock that allows it to penetrate into its depths. If the water flows over a clay mass, such as that of the subatlantic blue marls or the lias marls, it is conceivable that it can travel a very large space by digging a bed in these marls, and thus form a real underground river which can have several reservoirs, like the one I have just mentioned, responsible for feeding it. These reservoirs are necessarily higher than the bed of the underground watercourse they can be located near the top of the mountains, and the watercourse will come to pass under the face of the plains. If, in this case, we pierce the ground of the plain immediately above the watercourse, it will spring through the opening with a force proportional to the elevation of its starting point. If the water did not experience friction in the underground channels or resistance from the air when it left the earth, it would rise to a height precisely equal to that of its starting point. This is the easiest way to realize the Artesian wells. It is likely that it exists in

the depths of the globe of large rivers, which originate at a fairly considerable height in the interior of the mountains and whose direction is constant, which requires that they flow on a compact surface that does not allow water to pass through.

The entire chain of the little Atlas is composed of a clay mass, and the hills that lie on the planes of this chain, to the north and south, are largely formed of a compact marl, as are those that border, to the north, the plain of the Metidja. Thus, we can therefore, with great chances of success, try to establish wells drilled on the territory of Medea and throughout the vast plain of the Metidja. It is especially at a small distance from the foot of the mountains that we can most easily succeed. The entire small plain that extends from the Bab-Azoun basins to Cape Matifou also offers great chances of success, we could still probe in the SydiEfroudj peninsula and along the coast, up to a fairly large distance, to the west. But we must be careful not to undertake work in the mass of the hills, because there is no marl formation higher than them in the vicinity

It is also necessary to be careful not to look for springs gushing in the schists and gneisses of Mount Bou-Zaria, which do not retain water and below which there are no clay rocks. Therefore . nor should we undertake to drill wells along the sea, from Cape Caxine to beyond the fort of Bab-Azoun, because, in this portion of land, the soil is formed by schists and gneiss, apart from the shreds of diluvial marl that are found here and there. The whole suburb of Bab-el-Ouad and the flat lands located there being in the same case, the drilled wells would not succeed there either.


During my stay in Africa, it was quite impossible for us to go by land from Algiers to Oran, we could not even go three leagues from Algiers without an escort. I therefore did not have the opportunity to study the nature of the soil between Algiers and Oran and that is why I am doing a separate article on the geology of the surroundings of this city. I went to Oran by sea, towards the end of June i83i, this place was then occupied by two battalions of the i th regiment of the line, commanded by the brave Colonel Lefol, who died of nostalgia shortly after my departure. M. Lefbl, being obliged to guard the city and the surrounding forts with his two battalions, could only give me a weak escort to carry out topographical operations in the-

turn. This forced me to content myself with traveling a radius of 5 to 6,000 meters outside the walls, and following the coast to Cape Falcon, which is 16,000 meters northwest of the city.

The geognostic formations that are revealed in this portion of the terrain are phylladic shales of very singular dolomitic rocks, the subatlantic tertiary terrain, and finally~~o/Sea~shells from the Diluvian period, or at least from the last period of the tertiary era.

The schists form the basis of the soil of the region they also largely constitute this mass of mountains which dominates Oran, to the west, (the Rammra)~and which extends half a league beyond the fort Mers-el-Kebir.

These shales are in almost vertical layers which all dip towards the North. The dominant rock is a common phyllade whose hues are generally pale, however it sometimes takes on a wine-like color. The phyllade passes to slate shale but never

to talcous shale, nor to micaschist, it is cut in all directions by numerous veins of white quarz. Grayish quarzite layers are subordinate in the schist mass we sometimes notice regular alternations between the shale and the quarzite layers.

The formation that occupies us seems devoid of metals I have not seen any garnets or macle crystals there either; despite all my research I have not been able to discover any organic remains there, not even traces of anthracite. All the shales of Oran are effervescent in acids they are not talcous finally the absence of the mineral substances that we found in those of Algiers makes me believe them to be of a much newer formation than the latter; they must be reported to the secondary terrain~probably to the lias, like those of the Atlas. Dolomites that pierced them on several points, as I will soon say, changed the schistous clays into phyllades, and the sandstones into quarzites.

The sources are rare in this formation and those that are found there are not. not abundant so the soil is very little fertile almost all

the mountains are arid or covered with bad brushwood.

The inhabitants of Oran did not take any advantage of the rocks of this geognostic group. I believe that by digging in the vicinity of the Pointe de Moune we could manage to come across layers of slate of a fairly good quality. The quarzites would provide an excellent stone for the building.

Dolomite. From Oran to the fort of Mersel-Kebir, we can see bluish-gray rocks in the middle of the shales that seem to have come there in the manner of certain volcanic products. Along the cliffs, these rocks fill small valleys and rest transgression-~on the schists. At the SantaCrux mountain, they come out of these same schists by forming a wall which has the shape of a triangular prism. In the flanks of this mountain, huge blocks come out of the middle of the shales, on which they seem to have overflowed. The ridge of the mountain of Mers-el-Kebir is formed by masses of these rocks arranged like uplift craters placed on the same straight line parallel to the coast and making with the meridian an angle of 12 3 degrees

These rocks bluish and yellowish are the dolomites containing a slight excess of carbonate of magnesia. Their position géognostique year-

it is not said that they were fluid or at least in a state of softness when they penetrated into the schists; the fragments of the bluish dolomites, impasto in the yellow dolomite, demonstrate the fluidity of the latter it is arranged on the ground that it occupies quite like a lava, and the tuffs that accompany it still support this opinion; but there is more, examining the rocks carefully, we see that they are all penetrated by oligist iron, which has been sublimated the large veins of which I have spoken are cracks that have been filled by this mineral. In the points of contact between the dolomites and the schists, these have been triturated, very noticeably altered, and they have passed to a schistose dolomite whose proportions are strictly those of this mineral species. This fact is extremely remarkable, it seems to me to prove that the fluid dolomites acted here absolutely like the pyroxene porphyries and other igneous rocks in many parts of Europe.

Previous observations tend to prove that rocks in the composition of which, a large amount of carbonic acid have been able to be in a state of fluidity igneous,

as the feldspathic rocks, pyroxéniques, etc, This assertion is put beyond doubt by the following fact.

Cape Falcon, 8,000 meters northwest of the fort of Mers-el-Kebir, is formed by the phyllades in very inclined layers, which are covered with transgressive stratification by the tertiary terrain. Here, the mass of the schists is penetrated in all directions by a sublamellar substance, which at first glance would be taken for carbonate iron (Braunstein) it is however only a dolomite impregnated with a large amount of oligist iron (i). This ferruginous dolomite forms above the surface of the ground an elongated mass, parallel to the coast and to the line of the rocks of Mers-el Kebir. The length of this mass is 200 meters and its height is 25 meters. here, the dolomite has pierced the tertiary terrain on which it spread. the limestones and sandstones on which it flowed are hardened, and often portions of dolomite have embedded themselves there. I dropped off at the King’s Garden #

(i) This species of rock is entirely new none of the mineralogists in Paris had yet seen it.

a sample of tertiary sandstone on which globular fragments of ferruginous dolomite are implanted which have penetrated very far into the mass which has become red and extremely hard. We can therefore no longer doubt that the Oran, gray, yellow and brown dolomites did not come out of the interior of the earth in a molten state, after the deposition of the tertiary terrain y and that they did not flow on the surrounding sot but the small distance traveled and the shape of the masses prove that they were rather in a state of softness than in a fluid state. It is a very extraordinary fact that masses into which carbonic acid enters in such large quantities could have been produced by the action of fire, without this acid having been released.

The subatlantic tertiary terrain is very well developed in Oran; it is it that forms the soil of the great plain to the east of this city and south to the Atlas; it exists on the Rammra mountains, at~70 meters above the sea; it constitutes the portion of mountains that borders the road of

Telmecen. Since S~ooo meters west of Mers-el-Kebir to Cape Falcon, it is he who forms the cliffs and all the soil of the plain that is contiguous to them. The blue marl, the same that we found in Algiers and between the Atlases, occupies the lower part. This marl seems here devoid of organic remains and mineral species. The second floor is a little different from that of Algiers it is composed of layers of marl and limestone~alternating together, over a thickness that varies from 5o meters to 40 meters. On the plain, these layers are substantially horizontal; above the English consulate, they rest transgressively on the shales, the same is true on the plateaus of Mount Rammra; but in the mountains, from the old Kasba to two leagues to the southwest, the layers of the tertiary terrain incline to the north, like the shales, at an angle that sometimes exceeds 5o”.

The limestones are whitish and cretaceous, yellowish and coarse; they usually occupy the lower part of the second floor; then come limestone beds alternating with yellowish marls, often schistose, almost always sandy, and between which there are benches

of oysters mixed with a few other shells. In the middle of these layers, two banks of one meter thick each stand out, and which are found everywhere composed of a very white schistose marl. The masses of this marl split like slate; on the plates there are perfectly preserved fish prints. These fish are extremely numerous, especially at the large quarry near Fort Saint-André by breaking a mass of one cubic foot, it is rare not to find three or four fish. In the schools that contain the fish, we do not encounter other organic remains with them, but in the layers of limestone and sand that separate them there are schools of large oysters mixed with gryphaea, quite the same as those that I have already mentioned in the tertiary terrain of Algiers. The upper part of this second floor is formed by a limestone breccia, or a coarse brèchiform limestone, which is formed by-

be on the surface of the ground throughout the plain, south and east of Oran.

I did not find any kind of mineral species in the blue marl of Oran. The limestones and the sands which are superior to it contain 5

iesiiiite flint in small beds, kidneys of a~/c~6 ~’o/M~t~yellowish, and veins of a flint /e~~jauhe, which vertically cut the mass. I didn’t see any traces of brown coal in the entire formation.

The fossil shells, which are very nomadic in the second floor, are large oysters and gr~forming together benches in the sandy layers, combs, and some bucards. I didn’t notice a single univalve.

I haven’t found the big c’s~e~r~s of Algiers, but of. cidaris everything is the same as those in the vicinity of this city. Coral limestone seems to be missing in the tertiary terrain of Oran.

The white marl fish all belong to the genus~o~whose species live both in fresh waters and in the sea. Mr. Agassis, who has studied all the samples that I have reported, has been able to recognize only one species that he has named~/o~elong~a.

I have already said that the tertiary terrain of Oran occupied vast plains these plains are only 135 meters high above the sea;

but it is also found in horizontal layers on the plateaus of the Rammra Mountains, at~70 meters above this level. The limestones form hills, and even small mountains to the west of the Detelmecen road, the mountains have rounded shapes and they include deep, steep and tortuous valleys between them. The layers are inclined to the North, at an angle that varies from 10 to 3o degrees.

Along the cliffs and to the east of Oran, we see many springs coming out of the blue marl the stream that passes in the middle of the city comes from the mountains of the tertiary terrain the one that flows in the valley, to the east of Kerguenta, also takes its source in this terrain, and follows one of its valleys to the point where it comes to flow into the sea between two steep cliffs. The plains whose soil is formed by the tertiary terrain, being covered with a rather thick layer of yellow marl, are very suitable for the cultivation of cereals the Arabs sow wheat between the clumps of dwarf date palms that grow naturally there. The plateaus and mountains of this terrain are arid or covered with bad brushwood.

The tertiary limestone was very used by the Moors and by the Spaniards, for the constructions of the city. In the Saint-André quarry, three large benches are exploited giving very beautiful stones that are easily cut. The inhabitants of Oran and those of the countryside use this rock to make fat lime it is for this purpose that all the lime kilns that can be found around the city and in the countryside have been built. Blue marl is used for pottery, it is used to make vases of all shapes and pipes to conduct water.

limestone, instead of being travertine, and the shells are still in their natural state. Finally, in the vicinity of the English consulate, at the foot of the Santa-Crux mountain, there is, on the tertiary ground, a massive breach with ferruginous limestone cement, containing numerous fragments of bluish and yellow dolomites, which I believe to be contemporary with the shell travertine of which I have just spoken.

The deposits of the current time are almost zero in the vicinity of Oran I have not seen dunes from Cape Canastel to Cape Falcon. On the edges of the rades of Oran, Mersel-Kebir, and on the beach of las Aguadas, the sea accumulates sands in the middle of which are buried some of the shells that now live in its interior. I have not been able to study the deposits that form at the bottom of the two large lakes that exist in the plain, South and southeast of Oran.

If we remember what I am saying about the possibility of establishing wells drilled in the vicinity of Algiers, the plain of Amétidja, etc., it will easily be understood that they can be made in the plain which is to the east and south of Oran, and in the very interior of the city; but we should not undertake to drill wells, in the hope of obtaining gushing waters, on the coast of the bay of Mers-el-Kebir, because the phyllades layers do not retain the waters.


The tertiary terrain of Oran is very similar to that of Aix en Provence, it is absolutely the same as the one we saw in Algiers, and between the two Atlases the blue marl is identical with that of these countries As for the second floor, instead of coarse limestones and calcareous sandstones, it happens to be composed, here, of more or less compact cretaceous limestones of sandy marls and shale marls. This variation in the nature of the rocks is due solely to the influence of local circumstances. The gryphaea of Oran are the same as those of Algiers as for the other shells, they are the same genera, but not identically the same species.

The subatlantic tertiary terrain exists on the entire Mediterranean coast, in Spain, in Provence, in Italy. It is it that constitutes the hills that border the Apennines; Messrs. Boblaye and Virlet found it very well developed in Greece, it exists in Syria finally it is this same terrain that forms the soil of the whole of Lower Egypt, covered only by a layer of alluvium more or less thick. The tertiary terrain of the basins of Austria, Germany, Hungary, etc., is absolutely identical with ours; it is composed, like it, of two floors of blue marl, sandstone limestones and sands, and it contains the same kinds of fossil shells. As for the species, they dine and they must differ, given the remoteness of the place.

In all parts of Europe, the lower part of the tertiary terrain contains layers of brown coal (a type of coal) numerous and considerable enough to give rise to very advantageous exploitation. Despite all my research, I have not been able to discover a single vein of this substance in the subatlantic tertiary terrain but, judging by analogy, there must nevertheless exist, and surveys undertaken on different points of

hills that border the sea in Algiers, and in the middle of the plains of Oran, may one day make you discover them in large quantities. Such a result would be of the utmost importance for our colony, and especially for the city of Oran, where there is absolutely no wood to burn. The plaster of Medëya probably lies in the blue marl, where it forms masses, as in many other countries; such masses may well also exist in this rock, near Algiers and Oran. One of the facts best observed so far in geology is that the tertiary terrain was deposited on the surface of the earth, along the shores of the great seas and in basins enclosed by mountain ranges. This leads me to argue that, regardless of the large basin between the two Atlases, this terrain is found in all those formed by the different ramifications of these two mountain ranges, and that it is he, in horizontal layers, who constitutes the soil of the great Sahara desert. The sands of this desert are nothing other than those that are often found at the upper part of the subatlantic terrain, and which have taken on an extremely considerable development there.

The conversations that I had, in this regard, with Mr. René Caillié completely confirm me in this opinion. This famous traveler told me that he saw, in the middle of the Sahara, mounds composed of slate and limestone. These two rocks must be the same as those of the little Atlas, and belong to the lias formation, which would still be found, here, immediately below the tertiary terrain. This leads me to think that the main mass of all the mountain ranges between the Barbary Coast and the Sahara Desert is formed by the lias. The blue marls must exist below the sands and sandstones in the Sahara as elsewhere, it is certain that by digging, perhaps to a very small depth, we would find water. The one that comes from the Atlas Mountains and the ranges that are further south probably forms underground channels that cross a large part of the desert, and by probing in the middle of the sands we could well obtain gushing springs, which would be of the utmost importance for this unfortunate country and would greatly facilitate relations with the interior of Africa. The existence of Oases and freshwater wells, in several parts

of the desert, makes this opinion extremely probable.


M. Elie de Beaumont, in his beautiful work on the uplift of mountain ranges, had expressed the opinion that those of the Atlas had risen above the surface of the earth, at the same time as Mont Ventoux and the chains of Provence which are parallel to it, that is to say after the deposition of the tertiary terrain. Our observations in the small Atlas have not verified this presumption the arrangement of the layers of the lias, relative to those of the subatlantic terrain, although this chain has been raised previously, the same applies to the talcous shales of the Bou-Zaria mountains and the cliffs of the coast of Algiers, as well as the phyllades of Oran. The Atlases formed the edges of a vast basin in which the subatlantic terrain was deposited, and the mountains of Mount Bou-Zaria an island on the coast of the great Sea, where the same deposition also took place.

But the subatlantic terrain itself has experienced upheavals that have broken its layers, and. put them in the position where we.

let’s see them now. In the cliff of Cape Matifou we saw that the upheaval had been caused by the eruption of porphyries which are still there in the middle of the tertiary layers. It is, I believe, to the arrival of these rocks in the middle of the subatlantic terrain, that we can attribute its recovery.

In Oran, instead of porphyries, they are dolomites; which is an extremely curious fact, and the only one of this kind that has been cited so far. The dolomites emerged through the schists of the secondary terrain; it was they who hardened them, making them pass into the state of phyllade and sometimes dolomite. The layers of. quarzite, which we now see in these shales, were probably only sandstones that were modified by the heat of igneous rocks; and this is all the more probable, since at Cape Falcon, the ferruginous dolomite, by flowing over the sandstones, has considerably hardened them.

All the igneous rocks of which we have just spoken are posterior to the tertiary terrain, it is a perfectly established fact. When they erupted on the surface of the earth, those launched outside the charged masses of water

of carbonic, sulfuric acids(i), etc. These waters, entraining with them the debris of the rocks went, obeying the laws of gravity, to form all these deposits of alluvium, *to all of which we now apply the name of terrain~M~:e~and of which we form a great geognostic epoch. These vast beds of torrens that we find dry in the plain of the Metidja, are the main roads followed by the flood waters to get to the sea. The acidic waters, passing over the limestone layers, gnawed them and thus formed deep valleys. By the impact against the masses that they found in their path, these waters allowed the limestone that they held in dissolution to settle. this is how the veins of radiated limestone found in the cracks of the tertiary terrain, the layers of travertine that lie on the northern flank of the mountains west of Algiers, and the shell agglomerates that now exist up to 25 meters above sea level, were formed. all along the Mediterranean coastline.

(t) See my Thesis on the diluvian terrain of the Rhine Valley. oKry! o/These are the results to which all the geognostic observations that I have made in the different parts of Barbary traveled by our army have led me. The geologists who will be happy enough to perfect what I have only sketched will confirm them, I hope.


In all the books that have been published so far on the Barbary regencies, I have never read anything that could give us an exact idea of the climate of these countries. Some present the northern coast of Africa as a sunburned and almost arid country, others have seen the peaks of the small Atlas covered with perpetual snow, and the interior of the country drowned by torrents of water for six months of the year.

We were happy enough to keep, during the entire time of our stay in Algiers, a harometer / 7~~oM~and several centigrade thermometers, with which we have made observations for thirteen consecutive months, but which have unfortunately been interrupted

sometimes, while we were with the army in the interior of the country, we always carried a thermometer, and we were thus able to collect notions about the temperature of points on which we stayed only for a few days plain of the Metidja, small Atlas, Medea and Oran. In Algiers, we had established an observatory on the terrace of Omar Cogia’s house, rue de la Fonderie, n° 7. This observatory was a square pavilion, in floor whose faces were oriented. The lower meniscus of the barometer, suspended in the open air, always on the side opposite the sun, happened to be at 3~, i o above sea level, caught in the port of Algiers, by a flat calm. The free thermometer has always been placed next to the barometer. During the last two months, these instruments have been transported to another observatory, built on the terrace of the lighthouse of the navy; here, the lower meniscus of the barometer was only at 2~,07 above sea level.

Our instrumentals were from Bunten~very skillful artist. Before leaving, they had been compared to those of the Royal Observatory of Paris, and on my return to France, I reported the ther-

mometer which had been used to determine the air temperature Mr. Pouillet kindly took it upon himself to check it, and the zero was found to be one degree higher than that of Paris. In the formation of the following table, I have taken into account the differences of our instruments with those of Paris and all the barometric heights have been reduced to the temperature of the melting ice thus, they are very comparable with those of the Paris Observatory, published in the Knowledge of the Times.

I made, jointly with my comrade Levret, a very large part of the observations recorded in this table; we had arranged so that there would always be one who observed while the other was absent. However, we were sometimes forced to be absent together; and M. Levret, having been sent to Oran, I remained alone for more than three months. These different circumstances are the cause that there have been several interruptions in the course of our observations; which means that today I cannot combine them, to rigorously conclude the average height of the barometer~nor the average temperature during the time they lasted; but the results obtained 1. 6

can compare with those of other countries, and thus give a very accurate idea of the 4 weather phenomena on the coast of Algiers. By comparing, hour by hour, the barometric heights with those observed in another country, we could perfectly determine the difference in level between the two observation points. In this respect, they may be useful to resolve the question of whether the Mediterranean is lower than the Ocean, as some observers have claimed (i). Here is the table of our meteorological observations~ues, in the order in which they were made and with the indication of the hours of the day

( ) It is good to say here that this opinion is not based on any direct observation, and that the work of Colonel Corabœufl’innrm ent, This engineer has established, on the ridge of the Pyrenees, a chain of triangles from the Ocean to the Mediterranean, and the calculations, made with all due precision, have not given a significant difference in level between the two seas.

ABLEAU OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS made at -~C~at the Observatory, rue de la Fonderie, during the year i83o.~M~~t~M~lower of the Barometer, at 3~, “’18 above the MC level~M from the sea.


AUGUST. Rising from the ground., a5, oo

9 a. m. in the morning. 761,11 29,00 good weather. E.

5; Noon. 759,93~~5 id. E.

3 o’clock in the evening, 759.4o a6,7& id. N. W.

cuckoo. dusol. 26,00 id. N. W.

seven. Rising from the ground., 25.00 foggy.

9 a. m. 76!,45 28, aS

1 îidi. 760,80 27,76

3 o’clock in the evening, 760.03 . oo cloudy. N.-E.

Rising from the ground., 24,00

9 a. m. dumatm .76t,4a 29,00 beautiful. N.-E.

2 Noon. 760,34 28,00 N. E. ID.

3 o’clock in the evening, 768.76 29.00 N. E. id.

cuckoo. ground. 26,50

Rising from the ground., 2! oo foggy.

9 a. m. in the morning.~56,48 27,00 t~.

3 Noon. 756, n 33, oo id. O.

3 p. m. in the evening, 754163 26,60 id. N.

cuckoo. ground. 26,00

Rising from the ground., 24,00

9 a. m. in the morning. 754.99 26.60 cloudy. E. weak.

1 3 p. m. in the evening, 754.70 96.90 covered.

cuckoo. ground. 1-1 24,50

MONTH. ‘§ Ê STATE OF THE SKY. WIND. from JOUa. S = S Ï. WMA. STM. Rising from the ground., millimeter~22,50

ah. dumatin. 7&9, t5 22,60 rain. N.-E.

g Noon. 758.84 s5,5obeau. N.-E.

3 o’clock in the evening, 768.62~5, oo id. N. E.

cuckoo. ground. 22,5

Rising from the ground., t8, oobean.

gh. morning. 658,36 28,00 N. E. ID.

0 Noon. 758,66 25,50 id. N.

3 o’clock in the evening,~58,42 25~00 foggy. N.-E.

cuckoo. ground. a3, oo I

Get off the ground., 2t,7~

~h. dumatin. 760, t2 24, oo covered. N.

7 Noon. 759.07 25.3o N. D.

3 o’clock in the evening, 758.91 2~,5o id. N.

cuckoo. ground. 2’oo id.

Leverdusoi., 22,00. 1

gh-dumatin. 7&6,8b 26,60 thunderstorm. S.-E. weak.

8 Noon. 756.69 27.00 thunder. N. W. strong. tr. agit. ee 3 o’clock in the evening, 756.49 25.5o’clock rain. N.-O. T. strong.

cuckoo. ground. 22,00 1 III

Rising from the ground., 20,00

9 a. m. in the morning. 760.26 23.5o beautiful. S.-E.

9 Noon. 759,98 24, oo id. S.-E.

3 o’clock in the evening, 758.78 24.70 N. W. id.

cuckoo. ground. 22,00

Rising from the ground., 22,00

9 a. m. dumatin. 757.49 s5, oo beautiful. N.-E. weak.

10 Noon. 757,25 27,00 tJ. N. W.

3 o’clock in the evening, 756.57 a6,4o 1 N. W. id.

cuckoo. ground. 22,00


SBpT. Leverdusoi., mm. 22,00 deg.

h. in the morning 758.35 25.3o beautiful. N. strong.

ii Noon.~5y,5 27,00 cloudy. N. W. strong. 3 o’clock in the evening,~58.23 a~too beautiful. N. strong.

cuckoo. ground. aa5o

9 a. m. in the morning. -~5(), ta z 26,00 beautiful. null. quiet. 12 Noon. 25,00 N. W. id.

3 o’clock in the evening, 25~0 low N. W. I. D.

cuckoo. ground. 23,00

ah. dumatio. 75~,24 26,00 beautiful. N. W.

13 Noon.~57, oo 25.50 N. W. id.

3 o’clock in the evening, 756.72 26.26 N. W. id.

Rising from the ground., you~. io

gh. morning. 767.17 26.30 beautiful. s.

M Noon.~oo 24.5o id. N.

3 o’clock in the evening, 755.90~~5 /D.

cuckoo. ground. 2t,5o

Sh. dujmatin. 758.70 28.40 beautiful. N. weak.

Afternoon.~8.63 26.60 id. N. low.

3 o’clock in the evening, 758.46 26.00 id. N. low.

3 o’clock in the evening, 7&8,4;) a4, ootrcsbeautiful.

ERAS STATE MO! S of the 1! 5 STATE OF THE SKY. WIND. day. § ã Ê LAHBft

PTSD. Leverdusol.,~6.25 mistsrouss. S.

gh. morning. 757.25 33.75 id. heat. S.

i7 Noon. 756,72 38, oo stuffy. S.

9 o’clock in the evening, 756.80 33.5o tj. a little bit. S. Suffocating.

cuckoo. ground. 3o, oo

Rising from the ground., 22,50

9 a. m. in the morning. 758,3~’:5.5o vaporous. S.-E. weak.

i8 Noon. 758.36 25.30 cloudy. N. W. strong. 3 o’clock in the evening, 758.67 27.70 id. O.-N.-O.

cuckoo. ground. a3, oo

Rising from the ground., 22,00

9 a. m. in the morning. 763,35~7.3obeau.

19 Noon. 768,23 25,00 id. N.-0. strong.

3 o’clock in the evening, 762.7! 23,80 covered. E.

cuckoo. ground. 22.5o

Rising from the ground., ‘9)5o

9 a. m. in the morning. 761, t4 23, oo beautiful. N.

20 Noon. 760.20 24.4o N. D.

9 o’clock in the evening, 75o,5o 24~00 vaporous. N.

cuckoo. ground. 2t,5o

Rising from the ground., 20,25

gh. dumatin. 754.21 25.8o foggy. S.-E. weak.

21 Noon. 752.45 26.5o low S.-E. id. 3 o’clock in the evening. 751.20 27.75 covered. 0.

cuckoo. ground. 24.00 very strong.

Get off the ground., ‘8,75

9 a. m. in the morning. 757,82 20,50 beautiful Day\0. stormy. Afternoon. 758.09 22.30 Stormy N. W.~3 o’clock in the evening, 758.76 22.60 N. W. restless. ) cuckoo. ground. t8,5o

MONTH. of the State of Israel~INTS. day. j. LAMt. SBri. Get off the ground., !5,

9 a. m. dumatin. 763,77 23, oo beautiful. S.-O. weak. quiet.~5 Noon. 763.57 a3, oo N. low. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 76~,76 23.25 N. E. quiet. cuckoo. dnsol. ‘9)00

Rising from the ground., t8,5o

Get off the ground., ï9, oo

gh. dumatin. 76o,27 a3,6o foggy. N. W. that’s right. 2S Noon.~60.86 2t, or 2ae rain. E. restless. 3 o’clock in the evening, 761.09~,00 rain. N. strong. tr. choppy. cuckoo. ground. ta, oo

Rising from the ground., rain.

~6 Noon.~63,54 a3,3o covered. N.-E. T. strong. tr. choppy. 3 L. in the evening, 762,29 t8,5o rain. N, E. t. strong. tr. choppy. cuckoo. ground. t8, oo

Sun rise., t4,5o pl. casement.

GB. dumatin.~63.4t 1!6, ao covered. N.-E. tr. choppy. Afternoon. 762.52 at, oo rain. N.-E. tr. choppy. 3 b. in the evening. 76~53 ‘9,00 covered. N.-E. tr. choppy. cuckoo. dusol. ‘7)00 heavy rain.

Rising from the ground., t6, fresh oo.

gh. morning. 758,96 ‘9,20 cloudy. N. quiet. ‘”S Noon. 758,0! 20,00 beautiful. N. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 757.68 20.80 rain. N. W. restless. cuckoo. ground. !7!&o


9 a. m. in the morning. 7~8.69 ao,5o covered. null. stormy. Afternoon. 7&8,44 23,4o beautiful. null. stormy 3 o’clock in the evening,~58, o3 tz,3o N. W. stormy, couc. ground. 19)00

Rising from the ground., you~So very beautiful.

9 a. m. in the morning.~5~, t4~5o id. S.-E. low. stormy. 30 Noon. 757,86 at2, oo id. N.-O. stormy. 3 o’clock in the evening,~5-53 s3,8o id. N.-E. restless. cuckoo. ground. ao, a5

OcyOB Raise dusol., t6, oo

9 a. m. in the morning.~9,9~’6o very beautiful. N.-E. weak.

Get off the ground., t9,5o

Qh. dumatin.~6o,65 aa, foggy oo. null. quiet. 2 Noon.~Co~t 22,60 id. N.-E. quiet. 3 a. m. from &oir,~59,98 22,00 rain. E.-N.-E.

cuckoo. ground. 20,60

9 a. m. in the morning. ?59.65 20.80 rain. N.-E. restless. 5 Noon. 7&9,64 tQ. Bo id. E. restless. 3 o’clock in the evening, 768.98 2), oo foggy. N.-E. restless. cuckoo. ground. ‘9)0o

Leverdusol., i8,5o fog.

gh-dumatiu.~6o,53 22,60 foggy. N. E. weak, calm. 4 Noon. 760,82 2t, oo rain nne E. calm. 3 o’clock in the evening, 760,94 ‘9,00 rain. S.-E. a little agitated c’tuc. dusol. !8, x5 very wet.

~0[g. EPOCHS of the & . g § s YENTS. STATE

MONTH. from t3 op STATE I)U SKY. WIND. of

JCf” S g t THE SEA.

OcinBLeverdusoi., t8,5o fog.

gh. morning. $763.79 at, So beautiful. S.-E. weak stormy. H Noon. 763.4a 22.00 N. W. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~62,9-~ 22,00 nuageux. N.-E. calme. couc.dusol. ‘9>00

Get off the ground., t6, oo beautiful. null.

9 a. m. in the morning. ‘~63.19 g 2o,3o cloudy E. low. quiet. 6 Noon. ‘~62.96 a3, oo beautiful. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~62,65 22,30 (~. N. E. low calm. cuckoo. ground. 18,00

6 a. m. dumatin.~62,~’6,00 beautiful. null. stormy. 7 Noon.

Rising from the ground., tC, oo

9 a. m. in the morning.~65.55 ‘9, oo beautiful. E. weak, calm. 8 Noon.~65,3t ‘9,60 id. E. weak, calm. 3 o’clock in the evening,~64,68 20,40 0. strong. moutonn. cuckoo. ground. 18,00

Raise dn ground., tG, oo


Rising from the ground., .5.60 strong dew.

9 a. m. dumatin, 768.35 2t, oobeau. null. quiet. 11 t Noon. 762,48 2o,5o id. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening. 761.67 22.00 N. W. low ID. whoa. whoa. cuckoo. ground. t7,5o

12 3h. evening, 760,68 22,. o handsome. N. weak. quiet. cuckoo. ground. 17,60

Rising from the ground., t5~o strong dew.

9 a. m. dumatin. 76~8, .9.60 beautiful. null. quiet.~3 Noon. 761,73 2a,6o low N. W. id. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 76.6 22.00 N. low. quiet. cuckoo. ground. 17,60

Rising from the ground., t5,6o strong dew.

. э. дю матен. 767,03 t5., o id. N. trèsagitée

10,20 «y. tresagitcc

28 Миди. 767,07 ,(,~куверт. Н.т~. комфорт. trcsagit~31i. dn. oir, 767,3, ,6,60 id. N. très fort. trèsagitée co. c. duso).

9 a. m. in the morning. 766,37 ‘6,4o beautiful. null. quiet. 2 Noon. 765,4-7 ‘8,00 id. E. restless. h. in the evening, 764,23 ‘8,20 id. E. restless. conc. dusol.

Leverdusol., t4, oo strongcrossed.


Nov. 6 o’clock in the evening. 763~3

3 9 o’clock in the evening. 763,79

4 3 a. m. in the morning. ?64, og

6 a. m. in the morning. ‘~64, g

Get off the ground., t4, oorosde.

gh. dumatin.~65,64 1~00 foggy, zero. quiet. 4 Noon.~65, t8 t9, ao cloudy. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~64,46 .8.5obeau. N.-E. weak. quiet. cuckoo. dtso!. t6oo

Get off the ground., ,~oo dew.

9 a. m. dumatln. 765.39 17.70 beautiful. null. quiet. K Noon. 764,71 ,8,00 id. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 763,83 ,7,70 id. N.-E. weak, calm. cuckoo. ground. , c~o

i LeverdusoL, !4, Mid-osëe.

9 a. m. in the morning. 76~,89 .8.70 beautiful. null. quiet. 6 Noon. 762,21 ,9,50 nil. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 76..73 ,8,70 id. null. a little cuckoo. dusol. ,700

LeverdusoL, ,7~0 1 S. strong.

9 a. m. in the morning. 7&8,35 !9.5o rous mists. S. strong. unscheduled 7 Noon. 758,66 .3.70 id. S. strong. unpeag ¡ 3 o’clock in the evening, 757,76 24,00 id. S. weak, quiet. cuckoo. dusoi.00 S. low.

Rising from the ground., 19.00 foggy. S.-8.-E.

gh. morning. 75~,09 20,90 covered. S. peuagite’~8 Midt. 7.77 7 M, oo S. low. restless 3 a. m. in the evening, 758.25~, oo~null. quiet. cuckoo. dusoL~, oo~neck. andbrum. S. _1

ERAS g STATE MO! S of the State of Israel. WINDS, by DAY. j J~M&.

Nov. Get off the ground., fg. oh, beautiful. S. weak.

GB. morning. 760.03 a’to t~. S. weak. oatme. 9 Noon.~59.46 24, ao 58.58 23, ao foggy, null. quiet. cuckoo. dnsol. ao,6o S.

Rising from the ground., ‘8.00 foggy. S.

~h. in the morning. 760.66 2t, oo neck. andbrum. S. calm down. 10 Noon. 760.02 9t,~o covered. N. W. quiet. 3 li. evening, ?6o,53 ty~o heavy rain. O.-N.-O. unpeuag. cuckoo. dusol. t5,&o rain.

Rising from the ground., t3,6o rain.

gh. morning. 764.88 t6,~o t~. N.-W. little restless Noon. 764,50 !8.5o covered. N.-W. little agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 764.4:: t~. oo rain. Stormy N. W. cuckoo. dusol.

Rising from the ground., !3.5obeau. gh. morning. 765.55 t6, foggy weather. S.-O. calm down. El. Afternoon. 766,00 ,00 beautiful. N.-W. little agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 7~9~’7!00 t~. N. little restless cuckoo. ground. t3,8o

Leverdusol., tx, oo strong dew.

ig Noon. bt’au. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. 16, hazy oo.

Get off the ground., q3,5o N/A.

ERAS J STATE MONTHS. from the ‘§ § STATE OF HEAVEN. WIND. from j = j Nov. Get off the ground., millimeter.~deg. 9 a. m. in the morning. 763,6! c 19,20 beautiful. S. weak. quiet. Afternoon. 763.47 20.70 neck. and heavy. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening. 762.90 i8,3o id. null. quiet. cuckoo. dn sol. t6,5o covered.

Rising from the ground., t3, oo strong dew.

9 a. m. in the morning. ‘763,~0 t6,5o beaubrum. null. quiet. Afternoon. 76! a ‘9,00 beautiful. N. W. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 760.66!8.6o id. null. quiet. cuckoo. duso!.

DM. Leverdusoi., ,0,60 rain.

gh. morning. 767,9! t3~6o id. S.-O. restless. i Noon. 767,85 .3.8o cloudy. N.-N.-0. stormy, 3 o’clock in the evening, 758,27 )5~oo covered. Stormy N.-N.-W. cone. ground. t~oo

Rising from the ground., ,0~0 beautiful.

Rising from the ground., bru. and rain. S.

gh. morning. 756,87 ,3~0 rain. S.-S.-O. calm down. 3 Noon. 755,0!! ,~oo covered. S. calm down. 3 o’clock in the evening, 763.85~0 id. S.-O. quiet. cuckoo. ground. ,(;~S.

Get off the ground., ,3~pi. and thunderstorm. N/A.

9 a. m. dumatin. 753, ,3~. strong N. W. ID. choppy. 4 Noon. 759.68 jgooton. And here they are. S. stormy. 3 o’clock in the evening,~5a,65 , o thunderstorm, rain. N. W. restless. cuckoo. ground. thunder, etc.


DEC. Get off the ground., mm. ‘a, oo rain, at night. S.

gh. morning. 7~,22 !4~6o thunderstorm and heavy rain. g Noon. 7~t6,8o cloudy. 0. tautonn. 3 o’clock in the evening, ?56~5 14, to couv. andfroid. N. W. moutonn. Cuckoo. ground. ‘4, oo id. N. W.

Леверду соль.,~,80 covered. S. strong.

gh. morning. 754, ïo t7, stormy 3o. S. strong. quiet. 6 Noon. 752.6t t9,5o id. S. low. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~5a,48’8.60 covered. N. W. moutoan. Cuckoo. ground.

Rising from the ground, ï3, so rain.

gh. morning. ‘d&4,96 14, oo id. N.-N.-O. moutonn. 7 Noon.~54.42 ï6,8o cloudy. S.-S.-O. moutonn. 3 o’clock in the evening, 7&4, o~’4,6o beautiful. N. W. moutonn. Neck. ground.

Rising from the ground., ! t,3o rain, night.8.’E.

9 a. m. in the morning. d5?,66 ï3,5o beautiful. 8. quiet. 8 Noon~56,8i ‘7,80 id. S.-S.-O. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~56,~t6,&o id. S. quiet. Cuckoo. ground.

Rising from the ground., i3,8o

gh. morning.~5!3 i8, stormy 4o. O.-S.-O. calm down. 9 Noon.~40,45 2o,4o id. O.-S.-O. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, -~48,2t t9,6o covered. S.-O. calm down. Cuckoo. ground.

Rising from the ground., 10.80 rain, at night.

9 b. in the morning.~5o,8t 0. quiet. t0 Noon. t4.’)0 covered.

3 o’clock in the evening,~~X heavy rain. O.-N.-O. calm down. Cuckoo. from the s


10tJR. M , S, *And.

‘DM. T_ ` “mm. from, Rising from the ground., rain.

M Noon. 757.66 goo heavy rain. Stormy N. W.~evening h., 7~7~9 to, oo rain. Stormy N.-N.-W. Cuckoo. of the self. to, oo cold wet

Rising from the ground., 8,60

Sunrise of the 801., 8,50

9 a. m. in the morning. 754.59 8.80 covered. S.-E. a little agitates) i7 Noon. 753, QO tt,, o cloudy. S.-E. peuagito &h. dutoir, 7&4,52 n, oo beautiful and cold. S.-E. tnoutom Couc. dusol. to,5o

~H. dumatm. ? M, o4 8, to covered. S.-O. calm down. M Noon. 753,35 ,0,00 id. N/A quiet. 3 a. m. so~$752.78, oo nil. quiet. Cuckoo. dusol. 9.00 rain.

LeverdusoL. 7,00 beautiful. N/A.

Rising from the ground., 9.5o

Lev. ground.. n,2o greleetpluieO.

9 a. m. in the morning. 7~~9 12, oo, N. W. strong. tr. maut 2i Noon. 762,32 ! a, oo handsome. N., rO. strong. tr. ma~evening time, 753.63 o,8o

ERAS S L~~T a K)t8. from the government.. WIND. JOCB g tAMEB. s~’Leverdusol., 8.5o rain, at night. f~h. dum&tin. -~6o,& g,5o smoky. S.-O. muddy. M Noon. ?6o,48 ,5o au]. HEFULETM. 3 a. m. am,~6o~3 jn,5o was. stormy. Cuckoo. ground. to, oo beautiful.

Rising from the ground., 8.5o beautiful.

t3 ob-dumatin. T5a,68 tt,8o very beautiful. S.-0. low. caitte. 3 o’clock in the evening,~&5,88 t3,6o t

~ever from the ground., ro, o& conrert. N/A.

GII. dumati~. ~9 tt,3o td’. S.-O. restless M M!~49,69 t4,6o S. little agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, -~48,02 i3, oo id. S. little activity Couc. ground. tt,5o

Get off the ground., 4, oo very cold.

? Afternoon.~48.4o 6.30 gold., fr., tonn. S.-0. moutonn. 3 lr. evening, 74~,39~,08 N. W. môatona. Cuckoo. ground. 6.5o cold

9 a. m. in the morning.~52.5o 6.00~, t. aHrctM. N.-0. af ! reaxmeraHr. M Noon. -~55, t9 g 6.60 N. W. a~reuxmeraar. 3 a. m.*, in the evening..~67,80 ?, ao less mauv. N. N.-O. t. f. meraRr. Cuckoo. ground.~,00 prest

Get off the ground., 3.00 cold. N/A.

aR. dumatia. -~6t,54 g. to foggy. S. little restless Noon.~6o,32 ,3,8o N peù; stirred 3 t). evening,~9.78 t4,5o or slightly agitated Couc. dn sol. n. oo beautiful.

EPOCHS s j STATE MONTHS. from THE ‘g § STATE OF HEAVEN. WIND. from MCtt. S g deg. THE HEp,

Sunrise., tmm. xo, oo M~foggy. null.

Qh. dumatin. 760.39 ta. oo id. S. weak. quiet. S8 Noon. 769.02 t&, oo id. S. low. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening.,~58.4o t3,3o id. 8. low. peuagit~Cuckoo. of the self. ! t,00

JNV. Sun rise., to, oo foggy.

183i. g h. in the morning. -~6t,63 ta,oo id. nul. calme. 5 Midi. ‘>6t, t9 i4,2o id. N. low. little stir 3 o’clock in the evening., -~62,26 !3, oo id. N. low. quiet. CUCKOO. dusol. !3,00

Rising from the ground., to,5o strong dew.

g h. dumatin,~6t,9& i3, oo beautiful. N. W. weak. peuagita 6 tth. 761.62 i4, oo id. N. W. low. little stir4 3 o’clock in the evening.,~o. tg ia,8o id. N. W. weak. a little bit of a cuckoo. ground. ! a, oa

Rising from the ground., i i,6o rain.

9 a. m. in the morning.~55,58~, oo rain, cold. N. very strong. tr. mam 7 Noon. 755,86 7,00 id. N. very strong. tr. maut 3 o’clock in the evening.,~6, to 7,00 id. N. very strong. tr. maut Couc. ground.~,00

Get off the ground., 8.00 rain, at night. N. awful.

gh. dumatin. 75~,09 8.5o rain. N. awful. tr. fri 8 Noon.~66,55 8,3o id. N. awful. tr. maut 3 o’clock in the evening., ‘]’56,6~g,9o covered. N. tr. maut Couc. ground. ! o, oo heavy rain.

Rising from the ground., to,5o rain, at night. N. strong.

9 a. m. in the morning. 760,40 tt, oo covered. N. strong. tr. mau~9 Noon. 760, ti.3o id. N. strong. tr. mauT 3 o’clock in the evening., 75o,6~10,90 id. N. strong. tr. damn it, Cuckoo. ground. to,6o N. E. low.


Rising from the ground. mm. of.

j~v. Rising from the ground., G. oo S.-E.

Sunrise!~~oo rain. null.

gh. morning.~o, a3! a, oo neck. and brum. S.-8.~). weak. quiet. it’s Noon. 749,85 t5, oo id. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening,~9,3~!6, oo id. null. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. i-~oo brouilt. thick.

Rising from the ground., 15.00 hot, brum. S.

gh. morning. -~5it,16 )~, oo tr~sbrum. S. weak. quiet. i2 Noon.~5a,3t 1 20,00 S. weak, quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, ?5t,68 i6, to t~. petitepl. S. weak. quiet. Cuckoo. ground.

Rising from the ground., ta, foggy 80. S.

gh. dumatin. -o4 t4, ao id. N. slightly agitated i5 Noon.~56,~5’5.8o id. N. restless at 3 o’clock in the evening,~56,90 !3.5o covered. N. unpeuag. Cuckoo. ground. !3, oo tr. pleasant.

Rising from the ground., ia,6o null.

gh. dumatin. 767,6! tS. go covered. S. calm down. Afternoon.~5~53 !&,&obeau. N.-N.-W. slightly agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 756.98 14, oo N. weak. restless Neck. ground. t3, oo

Rising from the ground., t3, oo rain. S.-O. weak.


‘JAN. Rising from the ground., t2, go

9 a. m. in the morning. 759.59 t4~5o brumem. null. cahne. 4~Afternoon. 759,70 t9,5o beautiful. N. W. faibie. Muagita 3 o’clock in the evening, 759.55 t4, oo< ~. weak, calm. Cuckoo. ground. !3.6o

LeverdusoL~tt,5o beautiful. S.

9 a. m. in the morning.~5~, t6 ‘~o. id. null. quiet. 17 1 o’clock in the evening,~55,85 ‘9~o misty. 8.-8.-E.. tteu agitates 3 o’clock in the evening,~55 6o ‘7~~neck. and hot sucks. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. t~,5o beautiful. S. weak.

Rising from the ground., t2, oo. S.

Qh. morning. 757.5: ‘o covered. 8.-0. peuagite~S Noon. 756.99 13, oo rain. null. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 75485 ‘2,20 pl. and brum. S. weak. little restless Cuckoo. ground.

Rising from the ground., 13,70 ]!)f.-0.

gh. morning. 755 8ù!3.6o rain. H.-O. strong. unpeuaj *9 Noon. 75627 ’00; covered. Yew.-O. strong.. just after 3 o’clock in the evening, 75644!3.4o t< M. iunpeuaj Coue. du sol. id.

Get off the ground., i4,5o rain, at night. Q.

9 a. m. in the morning. 753.18 t6, oo covered. B. strong. moutonn 20 Noon. 752.4o ‘6.00 rain finc. B. strong. moutoft 3 o’clock in the evening, 750.86 15.80 covered. null. little fidgets Cuckoo. ground. ‘6,00 rain.

Rising from the ground., t3,6o rain, the n itu. I~O. moutonn 9h. dumatin. 7~9.96 i5, oo beautiful. M.-N. O.~noutona So Noon. 749~3 ‘6.4o covered. O. strong. moutonn 3 o’clock in the evening, 749.38!4.8o id. 0. strong. sheep” Neck. ground. t4,5o O. strong.


Lewrdusol., . ï~~oo S.

Rising from the ground., ,3~00 rain fm e. o.

9 a. m. dumatin. 7&4, t6~,5o rain. N. W. weak. a little restless … MMi. 763,78 ,5,4o id. N.-O. Faim. peuagi~at 3 o’clock in the evening, 753.83 r5, oo beautiful. N.-W. A little restless neck. ground. t~oo

LeverdusoL, n,5o beautiful. S.-E.

we get up from the ground., beautiful.

9 a. m. dumatin. 765.86 , a~5o id. 8.-E.

5 o’clock in the evening. 755,58 ! t, oo N. unpeuag.

Rising from the ground., 9.50 covered.

9 a. m. dumatin. 756,98 tt,5o td! cold. N. W. weak, slightly agitated Noon. 756.07 ts, oo N. strong. choppy. 3 o’clock in the evening,~55.88 tb,6o heavy rain. N. strong. choppy. Cuckoo. ground. 8,80

Rising from the ground., 5.5o rain, hail.

9ч.думатин. 7 и 9)!’o 4,5o id. N. affreux. m. temps. Миди. 761,~3 3,50 ТДж. Н.аир. м. темп 3 часа ночи, 763,8~5,5часов вечера. Н. аир. м. темп Кук. дю соль. -1 4,~или треснувший моис. ЭПОХИ z S ETAT


Джотджх. – m § jg g (At)E)t.

ЯНВАРЬ. Левер-дю-соль, °” С.

ш. 9ч.дю

9ч.дю~0 фроид. Н.-О. форт. trèsagité M h. du soir, cou. etRoid’а.~3 часа вечера,

3 o’clock in the evening,~Левер дю со! ,3

0. три форта.” 9 часов утра.~5,та 13,50 куверт. Н.-О. форт. тр. маув. М Миди.~e,!4~3,90 id. N.-O. fort. tr. mauv. 3 h. du soir, 757, s8 Il,00 pluie. N.-O. fort. tr. mauv. Кук. дю соль.~Рычаг ду 6ол.,


Qh. dumatin.~_о мутонов. 3 часа вечера, 7 и 5,63 тонны!~3 ~Левердузой., 9

0 С.~г. дю матен.

~9 часов утра. 752,07 та,оо куверт. ноль. успокойся. 1 Миди. 75z, t6 t6, oo couv., brum. nu !. calme. 3 часа ночи, 752,89 t4,5o id. N.-O. faible. народный кук.дю соль.

Рычаг дю соль., 9,50

2 гр.думатина. 756, t5 i3, oo )rnme. S. calme. th. du soir. t5,3o petite pluie.


Рычаг дю соль., ! t, oo brumeux. S.

3 г.думатин. 7

,00 ид. Н.-О. мутонн Кук.душ. !3,5 часа Н.-О.~9 часов утра.

9 a. m. in the morning.~дю соль. i3, oo

Левердюзоль. та,

5 часов 9 минут утра

,45 16,оо бо. 0. спокойствие. 6 Миди.~6>8 ‘8,60 ид. Н. кальме. 4h.дюсуар,~6t,->6t,63 t4,5o id. S. peu agitée Couc. дю соль 14,00~Рычаг дю соль., тт,5о бо.

9 часов утра. –

9 a. m. in the morning. -~63,23 t9, oo id. N.-O. calme. 6 часов вечера,~63,65 t5, oo id. S. calme. Кук.дусол. 14,50~Рычаг дю соль., 12,60

9 часов утра. 76

9 a. m. in the morning. 76~67,62 ‘7,’o идентификатор. ноль. calme. 3 часа ночи., 767,43 18, oo id. N. faible. успокойся. Кук. ду соль. т4,оо~ЭПОХА С ГОСУДАРСТВОМ МОИС. ду’г ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. де Джей Джей

Левердюзоль., n,6o Бруйяр.~M< s

9 9 часов утра. 770,43 т3,6о куверт. Н.-Е. распаковка Миди. кув., фройд. Н.-Э. уапеуаг. 5 часов вечера. 770,6; ta,€o N.-E. unpeuag Леверду соль., иит, о. куверт.

10 бо ле рест

Левер дю соль., ио, оо бо.

9 часов утра. 778,84 т3, до н. э. фейбл, кальме. ii Миди. 773,04 т

, oo id. N.-E. faible. calme. 3 ч. вечера, 77~,62 т3,о. нуаге. N.-E. faible. пеуаите~Левер дю соль, 9,5о розовом.< Couc. du sol.

12 Ч. Утренняя программа dtt. 77!,4а та,5о бо. Н. фейбл. успокойся.

Il h. du soi., 77°,84 .3,40 id. N. faible. эан.

13 Миди. бруйяр.

Рычаг дю соль., t3, oo

14 Миди. 763,77 т7,8конверт. ноль. calme. 3 часа ночи, 763,80 17,00 id. N.-O. peu agité Couc. дю соль. i3, oo beau. N. faible. peu. agit Leverdusol.,

gb. du matin. 763,85 t3,8o couvert. nul. успокойся.~0

13 миди. i4,оо брюмо.

Мидт. ты


МБ.~17 Кук.душол.

de~Левер дю соль., 9,

эрдусоль., 6,5о плюи, ла нюи. С С..~0 ¡

Le~9 часов утра. 763, o& 8,00 pluie fine. S. unpeuag. 20 Миди.

60,39 8,90 id. S. unpeuag~59,00 ‘o. go id. S. uape< 1 3 h. du soir, ~agj Coue. дю соль. 8,8)0~Рычаг dn

ol., tt, oo N, fort.~Левер дю соль., 7,3о бо. Н. Дж


~6о,48 9, мой id. N. f. tlbie. улез~Миди. т~. и фройд. хук~э.. и х. дю суар,~С, О~9,2~М. Н. фейбл, ульез. Кук.дюсоль.~джей джей ФАТ МОИС. дю § § ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. d.

“Левер-дю-соль, Нью-Йорк, 5o N. fort. УММ%-Ну

Леверду сол., 7,00 евро.

gh. du matin. 761,97 8,60 красавчик, фройд. Н. форт. волнение в Миди. 761,9! тт,ао плюи.. Н. форт. волнение в Миди. 761,9! тт,ао плюи.. Н. форт. волнение в Миди.

Левер дю соль., 7,00< 3 h. du soir, 761,80 9,to tj. N. fort. très agité Couc. du sol. 8,60

9 ч. до утра. 763,45 н. э.,5о бо. Н.фейбл. peu agité aK Midi. 763,68 t3,5o nul. calme. 3 часа ночи, 76

95 n,5o id. N. faible. peu agité Couc. дю соль. 10,00~Леве-дю-соль, 8,00 С.-О.

M 9b. dutnatin. 764,53 ia, oo beau. S. faible. calme. 5 часов вечера. 763, t4 10,90 id. nul. успокойся.

Леверду сол., к,5о Н.

9ч.думатин. 76а,т5 т4,6о бо. Н. возбуждение. Миди. 76

,77~, 3c id. N. agitée. 3 ч. вечера; 76a, t3 t6, oo id. N. agitée. Кук. дю соль.~Левер дю соль., до,5о бо.~0

9ч.думатин. 764,18 ,6,00 ид. N. peuagite’ M Midi. 763,76 ,9,60 ид. N. peuagité 3 ч. вечера, 763,15 ,7,60 ид. N. peuagitée Coue. дю соль. ,3


9 часов утра. 709,58 !г.,о. брюме. С. пьюагите Миди. 7 и9,47 ао,о. куверт. Н.-О. форт. мутонн. 3 ч. дю суар, 768,9< MtJR S 6 Ï.AMR.

‘8, o id. N.-O. форт. мутонн. Леверду сол., 2,8о брюме.~9 часов утра. 761,33 т6,о. нуаге. Н.-О. мутонн. 7 Midi. 76t,56 t5,5o id. N.-O. peuagitée 3 ч. вечера, –

6т,т2,т5,3о бо. Н.-О. гражданский союз. дю соль. 12,50~6 часов утра. –

63,оо i5,5о бо. Е. фейбл. успокойся. Миди. 762,14 4 t5,8o id. S.-O. peuagitée 3 ч. вечера,~6!,45 !&,5o id. S.-O. peuagitée Couc. дю соль. т3,~около 9 часов утра. 76t,6-! t6,9o бо. С. фейбл, кальме. 9 Midi. 760,

3 t9,4o id. N. faible. вечеринка в 3 часа ночи, 76o,25 !7,5 часов вечера. N. faible, peu agitée Coue. дю соль. 14,оо~9ч.думатин. 762,93

,00 курс. С.-Э. фейбл. народная агитация~0 Midi. T~8 !9,9obeau. N.-O. peuagitée 3 ч. вечера. t6t, o3 17,60 couvert. N.-O. peuagitée Couc. дю соль. 14,оо~~Рычаг дю соль., t2, oo

9n. du matin. ?6t,88 ‘7,00 beau. S. faible. платье Миди.

63,6: !8,в ораже. N.-O. peuagitée 3 ч. вечера,~63, oo !7~оо бо. Н.-О. Ты возбужденный парень. ду со!. т4, оо~ЭПОХА МОЕЙ ЖИЗНИ. ду 8 ЭТАЖЕЙ ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫХ ОТВЕРСТИЙ. де ММ М С Е р-Анетт.

Марс. Рычаг дю соль., j;

gh. du matin. 762,4. , g,5o bt-umeux. S. calme. i8 Midi.

63,20 бо.. Н.-О. кальме. 3 ч. вечера, 763..8 ,6,60 куверт. N. peuagitée Couc. дю соль. ,5~Левер дю соль., 9 часов утра. 767,34 ,6,8. куверт. Э. пьягите 16 М~0

767,28 ,4,8о бо.. Н.-Э. Мутль 3 ч. вечера.~66,43 ,5, id. N.-E.~onnj Couc. дю соль. ,5~gh. du matin. 764,27 ,7,30 beau. 0. faible. народное волнение. t& Midi. 762,98 ,9,00 orageux. N.-O. moutonn. 3 ч. вечера, 762,75~0,

,70 N.~0. мутонн. Кук. ду со). , 3.0~Левер даш, джей

бо. 9 часов утра.~~64,35 l6,0o id. nud. успокойся. i3 Midi. 764,36 calme. 3 часа ночи, 764,33 ,8,00 id. N. faible. успокойся. Co~c. d” соль. ,~Рычаг дю соль., т.~oo

Rising from the ground., you~?. faible-. успокойся. 14 3 часа вечера. 76, id. calme. Кук. дю соль. ‘7,5o id. N. faible. успокойся. Левердузоль,~7 часов вечера, 767,29

17 3 часа утра. 766,74 6 часов утра. 765,24

7 часов утра. 766,24

8 часов утра. 765,54

ч. до утра. 766,62

~тыс.думат. 765, Я я

Миди. 763,60 т8,ообо. Н. фейбл. кальме. 3 часа ночи. 762,63 17,60 id. N. faible, кальме.


мм. мм. град.~ttAES. jeverdusol., n,8o beau.~r~

h. du matin. 760,04 t5,идентификатор oo. ноль. пьеуагите 18 Миди. 759,47 )7,70 Н. Э. пьеуагите 3 ч. вечера,

9,0! iti, io «F N.-E. peuagitée Couc. дю соль..~Левер дю соль., т2,5о розовое.

Рычаг дю соль., tt,3c

Рычаг дю соль., !о,оо С.

Левер дю соль, 9,70

gh. du matin. 756,95 т3,5о нуаге. Нулевое спокойствие. 23 Миди. 756,02 !7, oo betu. N. mo

toÈn. 3 часа ночи, 754,87 *4,3a M.~E.-N.-E. мутонн. ICouc. дю соль ‘4,оо~ERAS J STATE MONTHS. da g o STATE OF THE SKY WINDS. de JOUN. ? § S THE BLADE,.

MtM. Get off the ground., ï3,5o e

LeverdosoL, ,3,5o rain, at night.

9 a. m. dumatin. 75t,7t t7,6o cloudy. O.-S.-O. calm down. 2S Noon. 75

, o stormy. 0. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 760.80~~7.20 N.-N.-W. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. 16,00~Rising from the ground., t3

o s.~Sh. dumatio. 753.57 i8, oo beautiful. null. quiet. 26 Noon. 753.60 sq. ft.,5o id. N. low, quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 753.34 t8,5o covered. N. weak, can’t sleep. ground. t6, oo id.

Rising from the ground., cover.

9 a. m. in the morning. 755,90 ,7,50 M/. N. W. shortly after Noon. 755.62 i8,4o beautiful. N. W. quiet. 3 o’clock in the evening, 754.96 ,7

0 id. N. W. a little shake Cuckoo. ground. ,3~Rising from the ground., , s,5o covered.~0

9b. dumatin. 752,94 ,7,40 beautiful. S. weak. quiet. 2& Noon. 752,67 20.20 covered. N.-W. peuagitee 3 o’clock in the evening, 752,94 ,5o pt. i. teetto.. N.-0. quiet. Cuckoo. dusot. , a,5o id.

Get off the ground., ,2,00 fine rain. l

gh. dumatin. 756,2, , a,8o N. W. ID. moutonn. 29 Noon. 756,67 ,6, oo stormy N. W. id. 3 o’clock in the evening, 757,,4,4,4o stormy N. W. id. Cuckoo. ground. ,2,3o rain.


OS. d. ETATDUQEL. WINDS, by DAY. § LABtBN. mm. tteg.~MARCH. Leverdusol., ït, oo rain. Oh. morning. 769,09 ! t,5o low N. W. id. a little restless 30 Noon. 758,53 t5, M id. N.-0; Faim. peuag

Rising from the ground., i i, oo rain.~< 3 h. du soir, 757,62 '6,00 couvert. N.-O. faible. peuagitée Couc. du sol. t9,5o pluie.

ah. morning. 755.88 t4, oo N. W. slightly agitated 31 Noon. 753.90 i6,5o covered. N.-O. little agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 753,68 t5,70 id. N.-O. moutonn. Cuckoo. ground. !2.5o

APRIL Raised from the ground., ïo,5o p!. uie.

9 a. m. dumatin. 754.87 t3, M id.

0. quiet. 1 Noon. 753,90 ‘6,5o covered.~0. little restless 3 o’clock in the evening, 753.68 t5,7o id. N.-O. moutonn. Cuckoo. ground. t9!,5o~Get off the ground., ïo,5o foggy.

9 a. m. in the morning. 753,73 !6.4o id. S. Faim. a little restless at noon. 753, t605,90 beautiful. N. slightly agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 75x,88×5,8o overcast. N.-N.-W. little restless Cuckoo. ground. t3,6obeau.

Leverdusol, 19,00 beautiful.

9 a. m. in the morning. 75

,74 t4,5n covered. No calm. S Noon. 75’5a t8, oo beautiful. N. iaibie. little agitated 3 o’clock in the evening, 751.57 ‘6.8o overcast. N.-N.-W. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. t5, oo~Rising from the ground., t3, oo beautiful. S.


vm Rise from the ground., t4, oo S. ,. L, l tmie.-You

~h. in the morning. ?52,54

~,20 covered. 0. quiet. Afternoon.~5z,5t 9t, oo beautiful. S. restless. 3 o’clock in the evening, 75a, o5 t8, M id. O. moutonn Conc. dusol. t4,6o~Rising from the ground, )3, oo storm.

9’b. in the morning. –

53.5C )6.90 cloudy. 0. very strong. tr. choppy. 6 Noon. 554,37 )3, ooptuie. S.-O. tr. restless 3 o’clock in the evening,~53,95 t5,8o bedu. O.-N.-O. tr. restless Coùc. ground. )3.5o~LeverdusoL, t

,5o rain.~9 a. m. in the morning. –

9 a. m. in the morning. -~. S.-O. calm down. y Noon. 753,23 !6.3o rain and thunder. O.-N.-O. moutonn 4b. dusoir,~53,4~Rising from the ground., )2.5o beautiful. S,<')',2'o beau. N,-0. moutonn Coec.dusol. )4,o

Qh. morning. –

,64 t6, ot5 S)-0. quiet. 8 Noon.~5~,43 t~5~, oo id. NJ. peu:)g~3 o’clock in the evening, -~56.8o t8, t! o misty. N. W. restless. Cuckoo. ground. t3,6o~gh. dumatin.

gh. dumatin.~55, t5 5 2t, obbeau. n~. ‘cahne. Cuckoo. duso!. r6, oo id.~To Leverdosoh, t4,5o covered.


MO! S. 1′ Q

§ EtATDUCtBL. WIND; .~verdasel., i&, oo rain, taauit.

Le~Rising from the ground, t3,5o t

you.~9b. dumatin. 754, t6!6, oo covered. No way! I. 16 MMi. 753.46 i

o id. N. caime. 3 o’clock in the evening, 753.34 t7, ao M~~restless<. N. pe~Rising from the ground., t3, oo strong dew.< Coue. du sol. 14,oo

Rising from the ground., t3, oo strong dew.

3 b. in the evening, 752,9008,5o rain. N.-W. amtée. 1 Cuckoo. dusol. t4,5o 1

Rising from the ground., ‘3.70 rain, at night. S. S.

gh. morning. 753,98 !8.5o stormy. variable, tttèutonn Midi. 754,79 t8,6o beautiful. N. soft

onni 3~. evening, 754.64 “8.8o te?. N. m~utonn. Cuckoo. dusol. t4, oo~ЭПОХИ ПРАВЛЕНИЯ МОИСЕЯ. да, ЭТО ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. де ЖУР. § g

вМт. Рычаг дю соль., t3,6o~m


Qh. dumatin.~,5o cou. и брум. ноль. успокойся. М Миди.~53, a8 t~,идентификационный номер oo. ноль. кальме. 3 часа ночи,~5а,44 т8,о. плюи. Н.-О. пеуагит~Кук. дю соль. т5, оо куверт.~Рычаг dusol., t3,8o O.-O.-N.

9 часов утра.

9 a. m. in the morning.~Ojg Midi.~88 кв.м.,о. ораже. Н.-О. мутонн 3 ч. вечера,~53~63,59~,90 мин. Н.-О. Мутона Кук. дю соль. т4,8о~Левер дю соль, 14,50 плюи, ла нюи.

ж. дю матен. –

53,60 !6,ао плюи. Н.-О. форт. мутонн ог Миди. -~54,8,70 унций нуаге. форт Н.-О. мутонн, 3 часа ночи, 753,26 ‘7,80 id. N.-O. форт. мутонн Куэ. дю соль. i4,о. бо. Н.-О.форт.~Рычаг дю соль., t4, oo S.

9 ч. до утра.

9 a. m. in the morning.~56,5часов вечера. Н.-О. пьюагМ 3 часа вечера,~М, М ‘8о плюи. Н.-О. монтоМ Коотк.дуаол. т4,оо~Левер дю соль., !9,оо

гб.думатин. 7 и а,9

М,о. Брюме. Н. фейбл. успокойся. 29 Midi. -~5a,6& at,5o id. N.-O.форт. возбуждение. 3 часа~вечера,~5 часов,65 минут,5o куверт. N. возбуждение. Кук. ду соль. т6,оо~Рычаг дю соль., !5, oo l


Qh. dumatin.~50 Midi. -69 aa, oo id. N.-O. пеуагит~3 часа вечера,~9 2о,о. о. брюме. Н. пеуагит~5~Кук. дю соль. ТК,ао~Отскок d” t j ETATOUdEL. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ.

~М* Лев. дю эол., !&,оооочень розовое.

Лев. дю соль., т&,оо куверт.


gh. dumatin.~t, oo beau. E. calme. Миди. 755,93 9t,8o id. N. calme. 9 ч. вечера, ‘~55,3~10, иди М. Н. ка!я. Кук.душоЛ т6,к~джевердусои., !6,оо куверт.

К. Х.думатин.

Qh. dumatin.~5~о Брюме. Н.-Э. фейбл. успокойся. g Midi. 757,22 9!, oo couvert. N.-O. peaagitee 3 ч. вечера,~,5o t8, oo id. ппаагитее Ку. дю соль. t&t0~5~Лев. дю Соль,

оо бо.~г. х. дю матен. –

6o,85 М,ао id. N.-E. мутонн. 4 Midi. 760,58 at,6o id. N.-O. moutoan. 3 ч. вечера,~6o,54 ‘3o id. N.-O. peuagitee~ouc. dusol. t&,4o~Левер дю соль.,

о, красавчик.~г. х. дю матен. –

56,40 i 2, oo beau. S. un peu ag. 31 Midi. id. h.-О. форт. unpcuag. 4 часа ночи, 766,35 n,8o id. N.-O.форт. распаковывай. Кук. дю соль. н~Эйме, успокойся. о Миди.~6!,&6 ‘9,00 id. N. agitée. 3 часа вечера, 760,93 ‘9, oo N. agitée. Кук. дю соль. ф&,ао~9 ч. до утра. 61,2 3 ‘9,00 нуаге. 0. мутонн 6 Миди.

6o,58 t9,3o id. переменная. тр. возбуждение. 3 часа вечера, 759,67 ’50 ораж. переменная. tr. mauv. Кук. дю соль. 1 r 6,0 0-1~ЭПОХИ Дж. Дж. с. ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. я это ДЕЛАЮ

МОЯ любовь и эта любовь..


23,5д куверт. N.-O. E~агит~i4 Mtdt. 754,20 st,~4′ Н. э. *~Благотворительный~t ~вечер,~54,20 3t~8о~Уагит~CMp. dusol.< .0. J~53,5~т7,5от~Лев~рдусол., '6,00 N.-Q. иноутОМ. ,

du matin.~58,6~20,50 N.-P-~agitet i8 Середина! 769,2~a3,&o ) id. N.-O. peMagit~.P~ah. du . soir, :4, ao~iT.-~hJ.

уматин, 761,5 и 22 09 быть~N.-O. peu agité~9ч.;думатин, ?6т,55 а2,оо оооо. N~. o. pe

agite~i6 Midi.~Rising from the ground., t3, oo strong dew.

Н _мпптом. 4~часа вечера,~5o~0,60 id. N. M~8о~~M ~17 Леверднсоль.. !&,5o~Предложения С

и Джей МОИС. du g ETAT DU C! VENT&. j

. dusol., ‘4,8o beau.~дуОфтатин.~t

L~56,45 9т,5о тдж. ноль. кане. 25 Миди.

gh~6,98 9t, ao t~. N. peuagité 3t, du soir, 754,99 “s~Итак, куверт. а~тройник. Couc. dusol. t8, oo~h. du matin, -~33 -:3, оо Брюме. безупречно. успокойся. 24 Midi. 76

~,06 tt,90 tj. N. MMe. calme. S h. du soir, 756,76 21,00~5~Лев. день”сол., 760,79 к,оо~9ч.думатин. 760,96 a4,для beau. S.-0. faible. население 28 Миди. 760,67 22,20 ?. народная агитация, 3 часа вечера,3о Н. народная агитация, 9 часов утра, 76;,3

а3, о, красавчик. ноль. успокойся. 29 Миди. 76т,5т 24,50 т.

н. Файе, штиль. 3 ч. вечера, 760,76 93,оо (~. ноль. успокойся. Кук. дю соль. ‘9~9ч.думатин, 76т,84 99,00 бо. ноль. успокойся. 30 Midi. 76t,42 3o,5o id- N. faible. вечеринка в 3 часа вечера, 7 и9,36 98,00 брюме. Н. фейбл. peu agitée Couc. ду соль. и3, оо коу. и лурд.~ERAS j STATE MY. from the bottom up. WIND. from J J~0


H. dumatin, 768.86 3~,00 foggy. S. weak. quiet. 5i Noon. 768.09 a7, oo id. S. low. peuagite

~JoiN.~h. 769,33 37,00 foggy. null. quiet. 1 Noon. 768.97 23.4o id. n.-N.-W. moutonn 3 h. 768.4.! t6, oo id. Ff.-N.-O. moutonn. Cuckoo. from a&I. t8,6o< 3 h. du soir, 767,66 a6,4o couvert. N. peu agi Couc. du sol. ao,5o

gh. morning. 757.56 29.70 beautiful. N. W. weak. quiet. 2 Noon. 767.19 a6, oo id. N. W. low. peuagitëe 3 o’clock in the evening, 766.63 M, oo id. N. W. fort. choppy. Cuckoo. from the ground ‘8,60~Sh. dumatin. 766,90 a3,8u beautiful. E. weak. quiet. 3 Noon. t67,3a 33, oo covered. N. weak, little activity at 3 o’clock in the evening, 766.4; 3

, oo t

. N. Faim. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. t8,8o~9 a. m., 768.67 22.40 stormy. E. strong. very busy 4 Noon. 768.8; 22.6obeau. E. strong. tresagite~9 a. m. dumatin, 764.29 28.00 beautiful. N.-E. weak. quiet. 8 Noon. 764,44 23,00 N. E. faibIe ID. peuagitet 3 o’clock in the evening, 764, t8 23, oo id. N.-E. low. cuckoo clock. ground.. 18,80

9h. dumatin, 76t,99 23,60 beautiful. S.-E. restless. 6 Noon. 760.87 a4,8o id. N. low. choppy. 3 b. in the evening, 758.61 22.70 N. E. low id. choppy. Cuckoo. from the sn! *9)8o –1< 3h. du soir, 769,38 22,60' id. E. fort. très agité Couc.dusol.. t8,8o


h. dumatin. 7

‘7’~foggy. N.-C. slightly agitated 9 a. m.,~,66~t, oo wheelbarrow. N. W. peuagit~6~e Noon.~t,6t 3&, sobeau. N. peuagit~e 3 o’clock in the evening, 760.89~6, oo id. N. quiet. Cuckoo. ground. ‘o~9 a. m., ‘1 80 58~8, hazy oo. S. cainae. i$ ah. morning,

o,5o 97,00 beautiful. N. tamie. quiet.~Leverdu6ol.~o O. tresfort.

gh. dumatin. ? C2,! i s6,5o foggy o. little agitated 13 Noon.~ ~~s. ox 3o, to beautiful. 0. moutonn. 3 o’clock in the evening,

t,44 3t, to id. 0. moutonn. Cuckoo. duso!~t j .. a’) “° E. Faim. quiet. th. dumatio. 70~id. N, _E, shortly i4 Noon.

,66~-E. P- 3 o’clock in the evening.. 2:5.60 K.-E. little activity Rising from the ground. ‘~e Noon.~o 0. a little bit. Cuckoo. dusol. 0. a little bit. Leverdusol.~,60 beautiful. &. quiet. ig 9 b. in the evening..~o id. S. calm down. t 7 Rising from the ground. ‘9)So beautiful. u. o.~i7 7 b. in the evening.. -!64, q4~o covered. N. agttee.

EPOCHS S J STATE MONTHS. from the 6 § STATE OF HEAVEN. WIND. day. j.~I JQ111. 1 in the morning, `

63, T

23.0o beautiful one.~E, strong. agitated~dumatin, 763,77 23, oobeau. beautiful. E. strong. tresagite)~gh. morning. 76!, o3 23.6o cloudy. N.-E. peuagit

9b~19 Noon.

60,7. 25, oo id. N.-E. peuagit” 3 o’clock in the evening, 760,11 I 24,. o restless N. E. id. Cuckoo. ground. 20,50~Leverdusoi., 2t, oo covered. N.~gh. morning. 76t,68

,5o cloudy. N. E. weak, calm. 20 Noon.

61.66 23.8o beautiful. N. peuagitM 3 o’clock in the evening, 760,86 24, oo id. N. peuagite~Leverdu sot., “762.07 19.3o dew.-~9 a. m., 7< Couc. du sol. ao,5o

,90 27.90 fog. N.-E. weak. quiet. 1) 3 o’clock in the evening.. 758.52 2 25.8o beautiful. N. quiet.



gh. morning,

!jOM..J 6 CI>8,56

0 beautiful. N.-E. weak. quiet.~M,&6 96, Tp t~. N.~iMe. quiet.3 o’clock in the evening..~3o rain. N. weak. quiet. i gh. dumatin,~6.60 s~,3o beautiful. N. W. strong. moutonn. 12 Noon. 7~6, tg 26.00 N. W. strong. moutonn.~9 a. m. dumatin, ?55.07 a8, Qo beautiful. N. weak. quiet. 13 Noon. ‘?55,35 29,~N. quiet. 3ht. good evening.. ?54.8o. a8,3b 1 N. W. weak. quiet. gh. in the morning, ?5l, o3 96.70 cloudx. S. weak. quiet. 3 a. m. good evening.. 7

,5o 27,3)0 stormy N .-0 strong. moutocn.~. h. dumatin, 761,40 28, op cloudy. E. weak. quiet. 18 Noon. 76t,!9 28,60 beautiful. quiet. 4 a. m. good evening.. 760.63 27.60 S.-E. restless. gh. dumatm, 76′,97~,00 beautiful. E.-N.-E. quiet. it’s Noon. 761.98 28.3p td. N. quiet. 4 o’clock in the evening.. ‘761,87 26,7

~N.-N.-W. quiet. 9 a. m. dumatic, 763.75 26.0~beautiful. E. quiet. Afternoon. 763, t 2 28, op t~. N. quiet. 4 a. m. good evening.. 762,34~,60 0 Н. Н.-О.фортпеуагитое~ЭПОХИ ПРАВЛЕНИЯ МОИСЕЯ. ду С~ТАТДУК! ЭЛ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ, де В ЖУИРЕ. J J LA

9 часов утра. 769,93 a~, oo orageux. S.-O. faible. улеуае 3 часа ночи.. 766,49 98,00 евро.’ Н. кальме.~.

ч. дю матен. y6~o5 a?, 3o красавчик. 8. peuagit« 4 ч. вечера.. 7 и 8,55 a6,5o Н. Мутона Рассказывает о наблюдениях за жизнью на Морском флоте, о том, как он узнал о барометре, который находится на S4’°~07 ау-де~-дю-ниво-де-ла-мер.~Qh.думатио.~~M~6!, от а

до бо. Н. кайм. M 4 ч. вечер.. y58,85 26~. Н. кальме. тт ч. дю суар.~~,86 а4,5о~0 t~ЭПОХИ~5~jg t ETAT jtO! S. 1 ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕРЕВОРОТ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. де ЖУР. J J t. ANM. мм. град. р

!);)! г.думатм,~6т,36

,к бо. Н.-Е. катме. 23 Миди.~6o,38 a4,3o id. E.-N.-E. агитация. 4 часа вечера.. -~59,36 a4jo id. E.-N.-E. агитация.~Ш.думатия.~, 60 бо. Э.-Н.-Э. кальме. 29 Миди.

g, от 25,5 до Н.э. Возбуждение. 4 часа вечера..~58~3 2~6 a5,3o id. N.-E. agitée. gh. dumaMn, z8,до beau. E.-N.-E. calme. 30 Миди.~68,9!~&8~o удостоверение личности. E~-N.-E. агитация. 4 часа.душ..~~,5i 26,90 id. E. agitée. 4h. dumatin, 756, o8 37,~0 beau. S.-E. calme.~5~х.думатин. 757,04 3t, o id. S.-E. calme. Миди. 756,40 30,90 id. 8.-E. agitée. 4h. dusoir.. 756,59 28,90 couvert. N.-O. agitée.~9б.думатин, 757,27 3о,4о бо. 0.-8.-0. спокойствие. Я Миди. 756,09 29,40 id. N.-O. мутонн. 4 часа вечера.. 765,80 28,20 id. S.-O. мутонн.~г.думатин, 758,а3 31,3о бо. Н.-О. тресагите 2 Миди. 757,5; 29,00 ид. Н.-О. тресагите 4 ч. вечера. 767,88 28,00 id. N.-O. très agitée 9ч. дю матен, 75

,70 а8,о. Брюме. Н.-Н.-Э. кальме. 3 Миди. 757,85 27,70 бо. Н. Н.-О. Мбкайме. 4ч.дусуар

757,06 28, в куверт. С.-О. агит.~ЭПОХИ J )~МО! С. да ЭТО ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. Джей джей

МИСТЕР~ОКТ. мм. град. ° g h. дю матен,~6o, o3 a6, oo бо. ноль. успокойся. 1i Midi. 760,77 .:6,5o id. N.-E. мутонн.~г. думатен,~58,8o z5,3o Бруйяр. Н.-Э. кальме. Миди.

8,18 26,70 id. N.-E. агитация. 4 часа вечера. 757,97 96,70 куверт. Е.-Н.-Е. агитация.~gh. du matin, 767,86 27,00 куверт. Н.-Е. агитация. 13 Миди. 766,96 26,70 Н. Э. кальме. 4 ч. вечера. 766,86 26,4о Н. Э. кальме.~ж. дю матен, 766,74 4 ‘:7, О. бо. Н.-О. Кальме. 14 Миди. 766,68 27,00 ид. Н.-О. мутонн г.думатид, 767,70 а5,4о бо. Н.-О. мутонн т3 Миди. 767,93 а6,оо ид. Н..0. мутонн. 4 часа вечера.. 768

3 a6,.к id. N.-O. пеуагите

9 часов утра, 758,60 96,20 бо. Э.-Н.-Э.форт Мутон~17 Миди.~

ЭПОХИ Джей Джей С~. В МОИСЕЕ. ду’§ ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ. де ЖУР. Джей Джей ЛА< E.-N.-E.fort mouton~

Aouz. 9h.думатин, 758,25 a5,20 nuageux. N.-N.-E. кальме. 18 Миди. 757,91 а5,90 бо. Э.-Н.-Э. мутон 4 ч. вечера. 757,98 24,00 плюи. Е.-Н.-Е. улез Минуит. 757,05 a5,3o beau. E.-N.-E. houleuse i9 4 часа вечера.~55,44 a4, oo couvert. E.-N.-E. тресаги~.

9 часов утра, 759,24 а6,3о куверт. Н.-О. улеус; 20 минут. 757,56 26,30 Н.-Э. Улеус 4 часа вечера. 757,24 26,20 Н.-Н.-О. хулез. 9 ч. думатин, 767,т7 23,ао куверт. Э.-Н.-Э. кальме. Миди. 758,89 .:4,2o id. N. calme. 4 ч. вечера. 757,20~5о Н.-Н.-О. кальме. 9 часов утра, 760,55 заго плю. Н.-Э. мутон Миди. 760,80~

оо куверт, Н.-Э. мутон 4 часа вечера. 760,82~о бо. 0. мутон 23 Миди. 76;,88 22,70 бо. Н. кальме. 4 ч. вечера. 760,65 23, для~о бо. кальме. 9 ч. думатин, 760,33 25,70 Е.-Н.-Э. кальме.~ЭПОХИ j, ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ мотивы. дю С’ ЭТАТДУКЕЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ, de JOUR. J I. A-M. АоттТ. d< N. calme. 2 h. du mat. 760,0; tg~г.дю матен.

58,37 24,70 бо. Э. кальме. 1 Mtdt.



г.х. дю матен. 759,75 25,00 бо. Н. кальме. 10 Миди. 7~,00 foggy. S. weak. quiet. 5i Noon. 768.09 a7, oo id. S. low. peuagite

Дж. Н.-О.форт. волнение 4 часа вечера.. 7~o 26,5o id. N.-O.форт. волнение gh. du matin. ?63, t4 a4, oo beau. O.-S.-O. calme. 11 Midi. ?63, t2 a4,5o id. N. calme. 1 4 ч. вечера.. 7~8a 24,4u id. N. ca! me.~9~гб.думатия. 763,89 25,3о бо. Н. кальме. 12 Миди. 763,~25,20 id. N.-E. calme. 4 ч. вечера.. 76*9 2&, oo id. N.-E. calme. Мелочь. 760,43 98,00 id. S. calme. 13 9 часов утра. 76;,20 2

,80 бо. С. кальме. 13 4 часа вечера.. 7~9,44 25,00 идентификационный номер Н. О. мутонн. 14 г.думатин. 757,51 24,00 куверт. 8.-8.-0. спокойствие. 4 часа вечера.. 765,41 24,00 бо. 0.-Н. О.форттретагите~а.думатин. 767,09 23,00 нуаге. С.-О.форт. волнение Миди. 75~,54 25,20 0-н.э.-О. волнение 4 ч. вечера.. 759,ио 23,3о ид. 0. форт. шампанское

Ш.думатин. 762,28 24,3o~туалетная вода. 1 9ч.до утра. 762,68 23,60 id. О.. С. О.файбка!я. 6 Midi. 761,34 24,00 id. N.-O. calme. 4 ч. вечера.. 76t,89 23,20 id. N. calme.

Ш.думатин. 762,80 23,о. нуаге. 0. моатонн. Midi. 762,!7 7 24, oo id. N.-E. форт. моттонн.~час ночи.. 76

39 a3,4o id. E.-N.-E. forttréaagitee 9.~ЭПОХА МОИСЕЯ. дю ‘§ § ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. ВЕНТИЛЯЦИОННЫЕ ОТВЕРСТИЯ, де ЖУИР. г*. А~9ч.думатин. 76

90 20,60 куверт, Э.-Н.-Э. кальме. 18 Миди. 760,05 аит,о. Е.-Н.-Е. форт Мутом. 4 б. дю суар.. 760,87 ат,4о Е.-Н.-Е. форт Мутонб. г.думатин.

9 a. m. dumatin. 76~Люблю. 76!, i3 3 aa,20 «f. N.-E. форт. агитация. 4 часа вечера.. 760,97 а~t~, 5о куверт. Н.-Э. форт. агитация. gh. du matin. 762,38 s3,3o couvert. E.-S.-E. calme. 20 Миди. 76!,5() a3, ao N.-E. agitée. 4 ч. вечера.. 76!, t5 22,80 л.д. N.-E. agitée. g ч. вечера. 760,02 а4,о. бо. С. кальме. Si Midi. 760,96 93,8o td. S. calme. 4 часа вечера.. 768,47 a3,3o couvert. 0. agitée. gh. du matin. 769,76 22,00 плюи. С.-О. кальме. SS Midi. 769,0! s3, oo couvert. N.-E. calme. 4 ч. dusoir.. 766,79 23,6o beau. N.-E. moutom 8 ч. du soir.. 768,67 t6, so tj.~6 ч.т дю мат. 762,90 ао,3о куверт. Н. кальме. 4 ч. дю суар.. 76:г 22,20 т.~Н. кальме.


9 часов утра. 754,8; 24,00 куверт. С. кальме. 30 Миди. 754,09 26,80 брюме. 0. форт. мутонн. 4 часа вечера.. 754,5

24,6o id. О. форт. мутонн.

M juillet t83o. Цитадель нотр-дам-мезон, улица Фондери, донне. . оо~МОИС. дю ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. О и афтон


ЖУР. С~17 часов утра.дусуар. 28,00 бо.~ra~18 Левердюсолей. ‘5,оо плюи.

я9 А.дюсуар. !о, красавица АБетида ддерАдМ

. Кушетка дю соль. !3,оо «Ф.

М Рычаг дю Солей. 9,00 т(/. Идемте.~p~27 Левер дю Солей. ‘0,00 id.

а.дусой). t8, идентификатор oo. АБелида.

Кушетка дю соль. Нью-Йорк,5о тдж.

М-р дю Солей. ‘2,00 тдж. Идерн.

4 11. дю суар. Я

, идентификатор 5o. Танцует в окружении земли.

Кушетка дю соль. i3,5o 7&M~29 Левер дю Солей. ! о, о, плюй. Идерн.

7-й.дусуар. т5,6о плюи.

Кучер дю соль. тт,оо

$ Левер дю Солей. тт,5о тресфрайя.

Кушетка дю соль. 13,5о пироге с мясом.

9 Левер дю Солей. 16,00 бо.

14 Левер дю солей 6,00 плюи. Фермерское хозяйство “Ягода с мясом и жиром

” 29-го числа по утрам. т5,00 бо, V. S.-O. Pendantce

Кушетка дю соль. т5,оо~50 Левер дю Солей. 10,00 v. S. форт.

Си Рычаг дю солей. т4,оо т

Кучером на ЗВАНОМ ВЕЧЕРЕ. i4,00 Atarenne


МОИС. дю ЭТАТ ДЮ СИЭЛЬ. 0~VA~au~Я люблю дю Солей.~A~

, 5о Н. О.~e~a

3 часа ночи. т3,00 “без перерыва”. Кучер дю соль. к,оо~2 Рычаг дю Солей.


th. dusoir. t3,5o beau,~5 Рычаг управления. 2,00 id. И так далее, и тому подобное. Кушетка дю соль. Удостоверение личности 8,00.

4 Lever du SoleiL a,00 id. Боже мой, бланш и третье лицо. Sur le Petit Co/ rcnM à iCOO” au

2i Кушетка дю Соль 10,00

22 Левер дю Солей. 8,00~e~M~ ~c M

i5 ? час. до утра.. 3,00 плюса и минуса

e Le t3 decembre, il y

.это~танет~, urtoutIePetMAt! M, and3p~at 800*° au~from the wcr.<)nce< d'ep*i"eur an col de Tenit.

~c~a~? Sunset from the ground. 8,00~~M~23 Sunrise. 7,60

Sunset from the ground. t3, oo

4 Sunrise. 6,00

Sunrise. 8.5opluMetbr.

~26 Sunrise. 7,00

t,00 Temperature of a pmtt tf” ptofon


X Sunrise 5,50 t. CQuv. and cold

25 t4,00 ‘UNITMTMPROFOND X5 t4,00 ‘UnefonttineMrt~

~Oran, at 90

above the sea, 1831.

28 thunderstorm, rain. After sunset, he~falls in Oran a dew if

M t’ t strong than in retttpt teute. 2

Matm. rain. mentdehonpendautme

time, we have our clothes on~Aah. good evening. 28,90 beautiful. 30 Leverdusoleil. t7,5o id.

Aah. good evening.. 23,70 id.

1 To 2 o’clock in the evening. 23,90 beautiful.

Cuckoo. dusoleil. 22,00 id.

2 A zh. evening. 23

70 id.

Neck. from the sun a2,4o cloudy.~3 Sunrise. t5,5o beautiful.

word. from the STATE OF THE WINDS. O

. Mfn. U. S. A. °

4 At 2 a. m. one evening.. 24,20 covered.~n~er~g Sunrise ig

o handsome.

Aah. dusotr.. 22,80 covered.~6 Sunrises. ! a, hazy oo.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 22.60 beautiful. N.

Cuckoo. from the sun tg. oo stormy.

7 Leverdusoleil. 19,00 covered.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 2

,00 beautiful.

8 A 2 h. 26,00 id.~Cuckoo. sun. 22,60 id.

9 Sunrise 20.00 foggy.

At 2 o’clock in the evening.. a4,5o beautiful.

Cuckoo. dusoleil. 2a,5o covered.

10 At 9 a. m. mat. 23.5o id. At 2 o’clock in the evening. z4,8o beautiful.

Cuckoo. the sun 21,5 o covered.

1 Sunrise 20,00

d 1 Pendam quelquca miuutea

~At 2 o’clock in the evening. 22.60 rain.

‘X. Cuckoo. from the sun 22.00 stormy.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 2~,4o beautiful.

8 A 2 h. 26,00 id.~13 Sunrise tg. oo id.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 26,00 . s.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 26.00 foggy. g.

Cuckoo. from the sun 2

,00 stormy.


o handsome.~n~

At a. m. in the evening.. 25, to id.~6 Sunrises. ! a, hazy oo.

i6 At 2 o’clock in the evening.. 25, at id.

Cuckoo. from the sun 92,00 id.

17 Sunrise

,5o id.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. 25.4o id.~Cuckoo. the sun 23,00 rain. A few drops* teuIemMt 18 At 2 o’clock in the evening. 25,20 covered.

i8 Sunrise 28,00 id.

A2h. dusoir. 25.6o beautiful.

Cuckoo. the sun 22,60 covered.

20 At 2 o’clock in the evening. 25, to beautiful.

Cuckoo. from the sun 28.60 foggy.

21 Sunrise 20.60 overcast.

At 2 o’clock in the evening. a6, oo beautiful.

Cuckoo. from the sun 28,80 id.

22 At 2 o’clock in the evening. 26.30 t

Cuckoo. from the sun 28,80 id.

23 Aab. good evening. 9.6,60 t~.

Cuckoo. from the sun 28,80 id.

M A2h. good evening. 26,90 id.~.

28 Sunrise 24.50 stormy.

A:1 o’clock in the evening. a6,5o beautiful. S.


og Cuckoo. from the sun a6,3o beautiful. S.

26 Sunrise a4, oo~r~

At 2 o’clock in the evening. a6,5o

27 Evening rising. a3,! o cloudy.

Cuckoo. from the sun a5, ao beautiful.

28 Sunrise a3,&o t

At a. m. in the evening. a6,6o t

29 At 2 o’clock in the evening. a6,6o t~.

30 At 2 o’clock in the evening. a6,5o foggy.

Cuckoo. from the sun a4,5o~.

So Cuckoo. from the sun 26,00 overcast.

i Sunrise S

6o foggy. During to.. TMO. ajoura to

Oran, the temperature has been~A ah. evening. 28,00 beautiful. fo

2 At 2 o’clock in the evening. 26,60

2 t y,00 Tank of your K~gr~M~tba. 9 a4h. Good evening. 32,00 . Dan. teMMeauborddeitmer. At 4 o’clock in the evening. 23.50 Sea water n the surface. 16 !6o Tank deKa. ba . A4H. Good evening. 23,

5 . Eandetamert). tttrf. this. A tb. evening. a~,00 Water from your sea to the surface. At 4 o’clock in the evening. a4. oo Free air.~8,00 First tank of Mert-etKebir.~18.50 Second tank of Mert-and-

7 l8, So The two tanks of Mert-e! Kebir.

As there have been several interruptions in the course of our observations, we cannot conclude from this the average temperature of the year, nor the average height of the barometric column. To obtain the average temperature of Algiers and that of several other points, I resorted to cisterns and springs coming from a great depth. We owned in our house, rue de la Fonderie, n”y, in Algiers, a cistern whose temperature varied only by a few tenths of degrees for thirteen months. After observing the temperature of this cistern several times, I took the average of all the results and obtained exactly ly degrees; which agrees quite well with what several sources have given me that exist in the bottom of the valleys of Mount Bou-Zaria. So we can take 17 degrees for the average temperature of Algiers. The cistern of the Emperor’s castle, located two hundred meters above that of the rue de la Fonderie, gave me 16 degrees 80 hundredths for the average temperature of this point.

~During the months of July and August, I took several times the temperature of the mass of sand by the sea, and I always

found between 4o and 45 degrees. On July 22, i85o, on the beach, between the basins of BabAzoun and Arrach, the thermometer, pressed at om 3 in the sand, at one o’clock in the evening, went up / up to 4


then brought to the surface and covered with a light layer of sand, it marked 56 degrees; the soles of our shoes were burned, and some of the soldiers we had with us left, saying that it was impossible for them to resist the heat they felt on their feet. Captain Levret put eggs in the sand in the hope of seeing them cook, but they did not experience any noticeable alteration. It has happened to me several times to go down to the bottom of a valley where the sun was shining and to be forced to leave immediately so as not to be shocked, but, in the middle of the countryside, the heat, however strong it may be, is not overwhelming, with the exception, however, of the days of south wind.~The beaches that border the sea around Algiers, the surface of the plateaus, the soil of the plain of the Metidja, are strongly heated during the summer; nevertheless, I have never been there~given the phenomenon of mirage occurring there, the objects undulated strongly and seemed surrounded by water, but the inverted image was rarely seen, and it was never very clear.

Here is another phenomenon that I have seen repeated several times in a very remarkable way, particularly during the Algiers war in June i83o, and which would tend to lead one to believe that, in certain states, the atmospheric air enjoys the property of giving two images of objects, absolutely like an Icelandic spath crystal. On June, in superb weather, at 10 o’clock in the morning, the thermometer marked 26 °, examining the line of troops, I clearly saw two images. the extraordinary image was a little less strong than the other, but it still distinguished itself perfectly it was elevated by a quarter of its height and a little deflected laterally. The same phenomenon took place for single men. Many of the Algerian tents that we had seized, had on their tops tin globes bearing a crescent; on all these globes we could see very indistinctly a second tangent to the

first. I have since seen the same phenomenon recur in such a clear-cut way several years ago. I had already had the opportunity to observe it in France in fairly cold weather, which makes me think that it is not due, like ordinary glamour, to the influence of heat on the molecules of the area. it must be a particular state of this fluid in which it enjoys double refraction.

Let us now summarize the observations recorded in our table to deduce the most important consequences.

Comparing among themselves the temperatures of the different months of the year, we see that it is in the month of December that the thermometer fell the lowest in Algiers, but it does not

has never dropped below zero its minimum has been

from 2 °, 8o. During my stay in Algiers, I did not see ice, nor white frost in this city or in the surrounding countryside the snow that covered all of lemontBou-Zaria, on December 25, i83o, and which also fell on the streets of Algiers, did not persist for more than an hour. Although the cold is not as intense in Barbary as in the center of France, we~perhaps suffers more when it makes itself felt whenever the thermometer dropped below 6 ° which always took place by the North and North-West winds, it was extremely unpleasant wet cold. As the houses are all built for the summer and there is no fireplace in the apartments, it was quite impossible to guarantee it; and, despite the brazier that I had put in my room, I affirm that I suffered more from the cold in Africa, during the months of December and January, than in France in the most severe winters. The Moors and the Arabs withstood the cold as well and perhaps better than us; however, they covered themselves more than usual: I even saw several of them put on two bernous, but they always kept their legs bare

and a large number continued to walk barefoot. The animals did not seem to be more sensitive to the cold than the men. Here is a fact that proves that the animals of Africa tolerate the cold better than we might think. I brought back from Oran to Paris three living jerboas that I have kept as lively and as

nice as in Africa, during the whole winter from t85t to 1832 although they were in my room most of the time without fire. It was during the month of August, apart from the times when the south wind was blowing, that I saw the thermometer rise the highest, 35% 5o. In the months of June, July and September, it rose to 2g °, 50 ° and 5i ° it is during these four months that the heats are the strongest. In the month of October, the temperature is extremely pleasant although there are still a few days when the thermometer rises to 24 degrees in November, the bad weather and the cold begin which last, at intervals, until the last days of April.~Towards the end of December, the trees lose their leaves, but before January 20th we see new ones showing themselves, the hedges are almost always dotted with green and flowering shrubs. In the middle of February, the vegetation is in full activity; and, in the first days of March, we make a first harvest of apples, pears and some other fruits. From March to June, we have a delicious weather on the Barbary coast except for the days of bad weather, it seems to be in an earthly paradise; but in the month

from June the great heats begin to be felt, the springs dry up and the vegetation perishes.

The examination of our table proves that the maximum temperature generally takes place between noon and two o’clock in the evening; but it also proves that the thermometer is often higher at three o’clock in the morning than at all other times of the day. It was almost always between 8 and 10 o’clock that we suffered the most from the heat, and this came from the calm that existed in the air until that time; but around 10 o’clock, there was usually a grouper breeze from the wind that came to cool the atmosphere, and allow people and animals to breathe.

The nights are not as cold on the coast of Africa as some travelers have kindly wanted to say, and that it has been imprinted in all the reports of the attacks of the Spaniards on Algiers by comparing the heights of the thermometer each day at sunrise and sunset, it will be seen that the greatest lowering during the night was, in December only, during the greatest cold,

%5o, but that this lowering usually varies between 1 ° and 5% it will

rarely at 40. In general, the dews are very abundant; I have often seen the canvases of our tents pierced by them, but I have also observed several times that, although the sky had been very clear throughout the night, the dew was almost zero the next morning.~In the thirteen months that our observations lasted in Algiers, the barometer never fell below

6″oo and he did not rise above ‘oo it was in the month of February that he rose the highest, and in that of March that he fell further the half of these numbers is exactly

60″ at the spring equinox, the barometric column varied between y~6’°’ooet~6i “”°, oo, at that of autumn (83o), she sustained herself between 75i~eteni85i, entre754~and763~et~64~at the summer solstice, it rose to y6/I. ° only, but it did not fall below ‘760’°” at the winter solstice, the lowering was as considerable as during the equinoxes. We have observed the barometer several times for twenty-four hours in a row, in order to determine the law of diurnal variations, and here is what we noticed the mercury column reaches its maximum height at~ends with substantially flat surfaces; I attribute this effect to the great state of dryness in which the tube was then located. The most common winds on the coast of Algiers are those from the North and Northwest; those from the South, Southwest and Southeast are much less frequent but the rarest are those from the East and West. It is from November until April that the North and North-West winds are most strongly felt; they sometimes cause dangerous storms, but much less often than we had wanted to believe before the departure of the expedition, as we can be sure by examining the previous table. Since June 14, 183o until October 6, 185 [ I have only seen six times the sea bad enough to put in perdition the builders who were anchored, either in the harbor of Algiers, or in that of thEydiEfroudj. It was from November to March that the sea was the most agitated, and not in the vicinity of the équinoxes. Il it is very true, however, that there is often on the entire coast of Algiers a wave strong enough to make the collision dangerous this wave is even felt sometimes when the sea is calm; but the ships~who are at anchor, at a certain distance from the coast, are not inconvenienced by it.

they could no longer walk and each other experienced severe headaches. Fortunately, this wind only blew for 24 hours if it had lasted with the same intensity for two days, it could have done a lot of harm. I never forgot to say that he was the vëhi-

of any disease neither for men nor for animals. The semoum always lowers the barometer, as we have already noticed.

It was during the month of December that the South wind was most often felt in Algiers the South and South-West winds prevailed for twenty-two days and then the thermometer almost always dropped instead of rising. Here is how I explain this phenomenon, the main peaks of the small Atlas being then covered with snow, the air was much cooled on this mountain range, and the thermometer had to drop below zero at the same time as it rose in Algiers to 5 and 20 ° the air being thus much more rarefied on this point than on the Atlas, a current was established from the South to the North and the air coming from the South, being much colder than the other, naturally had to lower the thermometer.

The rainy and thunderstorm season lasts for six months on the Barbary coast, from November to May. It is in the first three months that it rains more there were thirty-six days of rain from November 185oau t

february t85t and

twenty-three days only from that time to the present~may. In these six months, we have had ten days of thunderstorms with thunder and hail, seven of which in the month of December and one day of snow. During the other six, the rains were very rare, however, I still counted twenty-three rainy days, but then the rain rarely lasts more than an hour or two, while in winter it often continues for twenty-four, and sometimes it lasted several days. As in all hot countries, the rains are extremely abundant on the Barbary coast in our expedition along the Atlas, in the month of May i83i, we were assailed every evening by torrents of water. Thunderstorms are rare but those that break out are always extremely violent; the air is then charged with a large amount of electricity, lightning ignites the atmosphere, and thunder rolls with a terrible crash I have seen it fall several times in winter. The mass of electricity spread in the air gives rise, as we know, to a host of curious phenomena. Some of these phenomena are manifested, in Africa, with an intensity unknown in Europe. May 8th

after sunset-~the next day the whole atmosphere was on fire the thunder was rumbling continuously and the lightning was crisscrossing the air in all directions. We then saw, at the ends of the flagpoles, which are in large numbers in the interior of Algiers and on the surrounding forts, a white light in the shape of an egret which persisted for half an hour. Some of the officers of the engineers and the artillery, who were walking bareheaded on the terrace of Fort Bab-Azoun, were very surprised to feel their hair stand up and to see a small egret at the end of each of those of their comrades. When they raised their hands in the air, egrets formed at the tips of their fingers, which disappeared as soon as they lowered them. To completely verify the fact, these gentlemen brought ten soldiers to the terrace, on whom the phenomenon was repeated at the same moment and with equal intensity. The officers and soldiers experienced nervous contractions in the limbs, and a general weariness, mainly in the legs.~85~Except on bad weather days, the temperature is extremely pleasant in the streets of Algiers, since the beginning.

january until June 15th. It is only then that the great heats begin, which continue almost without interruption, until the end of September. The heat is very intense but it is not overwhelming, and we can resist it very well if we can do without drinking for a few hours; people who indulge in all the ardor of their thirst sweat a lot and soon can no longer. When I say that the heat is not overwhelming, I ignore the days with the breath of the semoum

‘the effects of which I have described above.

During the great heat, and particularly in the first days of September half an hour after sunset, a very intense red light showed itself on the horizon from the west side; this light rose more than i5″ above the horizon and its extent in length could be from 2o to~5°. It formed a kind of semicircle leaning on the sea and its intensity went, decreasing from the center to the circumference but this decrease took place in a uniform way, and no jets were visible, as in the northern lights. However, the intensity of the light being extremely strong, I observed

very carefully the needle, several times during the entire duration of the phenomenon; but, having noticed no variation in the position of the magnetized needle~I conclude that it was nothing more than the twilight light, the intensity of which then happened to be very considerable.

ROM~y. Almost every morning, the plain of the Metidja is covered with fogs that rise up to a quarter of the height of the small Atlas but on the hills that border this plain to the south and especially in the vicinity of Algiers, fogs are quite rare and never last very long. From July 5 to August i5, i83i, there reigned, several times, on the entire north coast of Africa, an extremely remarkable fog that was also observed in the south of Europe as far as Paris and even in the United States (New York), and on whichm. Aragoa published a notice in r

~/rc~r~M des /o~~M~for~e~M/iee t852. I was then in Oran and I had noticed several times without otherwise paying attention that the sunlight was so weakened by the fog~that we could look at this star for several minutes~emerald green. Mr. Arago, who analyzes all the circumstances of the phenomenon~says that it can be assumed that the blue or green color is the result of a gaseous matter diffused in the atmosphere but, he adds, “until now we “did not know a well-established example of it, ” and the hues, transmitted by clouds by “mists had always belonged to more or less pronounced shades of ” red or purple, that is to say to what most skillfully characterizes imperfect diaphanities. Perhaps we will think ourselves “encouraged by this circumstance to put the 1851 fog among the cos” mical materials but I think I must point out ” that the unusual coloring

the solar disk could have had nothing real; “that if the mists or the neighboring clouds ” of the sun were, as we can assume, “red by reflection, the direct light of this ” star weakened, but not colored in its ” path through the atmospheric vapors, could not, at least in appearance, not ” take on the complementary hue of red, that is to say a more or less blue~greenish. The phenomenon would thus fall into “the class of accidental colors that modern physicists have taken so much care of” it would be a simple effect of contrast. ” Stains from the~In the astronomical observations that we made at the Algiers observatory to determine the geographical position of this city, I often had the opportunity to observe the spots of the sun, which were very numerous during the summer of i83o. I saw these spots, united in groups of different shapes, appear at one edge, move slowly and disappear at the opposite edge, as well as all the observers who studied them; but besides, they all seemed to me to be solid bodies floating in the middle of a liquid. I saw around each spot undulating rings, similar to those observed around a mass, of wood floating on the surface of a lake. At noon on August 29, the spots were arranged in a straight line forming almost a diameter of the disc, and on September 1, they had gathered in two groups at the ends of this diameter. These curious facts support the supposition that the sun is a mass

in the state of igneous fluidity, and that the spots that often show themselves on its disk are slags that swim on the surface of the liquid. Sphericity~o~e moon. To determine ap

proximatively to the longitude of Algiers, we observed the total eclipse of the moon on September 2, i83o. It was a magnificent weather the air was calm and completely diaphanous. In trying to capture the immersions s and the emersions of the two edges, the arrangement of the earth’s shadow on the moon made me seem the sphericity of it in a striking way. When I was a child, I looked at the moon as a luminous circle that travels in the sky later the study taught me that it was a spherical and opaque body like the earth but it was only on September 2, i83o that I had the opportunity to convince myself of it with my eyes. Plain of the Metidja. I found for the temperature of a very deep well, located in the middle of this plain at the height of the Kabrer-Roumiah.~In December, I saw the thermometer in the shade rise to 16° and at 23″ by the south wind, on January 4, i85ï, at sunrise, during~that the little Atlas was covered with snow the

the plain was covered with white frost but there was no ice the thermometer however dropped to 2% co this is the only time I have seen the thermometer below zero during my stay in Africa. During our expedition of May 185, it did not rise above 2 /t ° but, in that of the following June, it rose to 36 ° by the south wind, which reigned almost constantly then. Small On the Tenia pass, a t

ooo meters above sea level, on December 15, i85o, in terrible weather, and when all the neighboring mountains were covered with snow, at 8 a. m. the thermometer still held at + 5°. During the night, however, we suffered as much as in the greatest cold of France; the chickens that we had brought from Medea all died; our horses trembled and

had a hard time supporting each other. On the same point on a: November at sunset the thermometer gave -+-10% and the next day 22. When the first rays of this star pierced the horizon, it marked – 8°. The lowering during the night had therefore only been 2 °, and nevertheless we had been extremely cold.~Thunderstorms are much more frequent on the little Atlas than in the whole country which is located to the north of this chain thick clouds often came to cover it, we heard the thunder of lightning and we saw it burst, when it was Algiers the most beautiful weather in the world. In the atonement that we made i. 11 I

with General Berthezéne, from May 6 to 12, i83t, we walked alongside the foot of the small Atlas. Every evening we were assailed by a terrible thunderstorm accompanied by torrents of rain, and not a drop of water fell from the middle of the plain to the sea.

Medea. This city, located 16,000 meters south of the ridge of the small Atlas, occupies the summit of a mound raised 1,000 meters above sea level. On November 23, i83o, I saw the thermometer rise there to + 5°, and on the following December 1st to drop to + 5″. The Atlas Mountains were then covered with snow. The French officers, who remained at Medea until the i

january ib3i, assured me that they saw, in the last days of December, the earth covered with four inches of snow and, on the pools and streams, of your ice strong enough to carry a man. The artillery captain Soupy, who was there with General Berthezène, on June 29 ’63o, saw the thermometer placed in the shade rise to 28″. The springs and wells of this city gave me an average temperature of

I have only lived in Oran for thirty-six tours, since June 28th!83′ until the following August 2nd. In this period of time, I observed the thermometer almost every day at sunrise at two o’clock in the evening, and immediately after sunset. In the morning the thermometer dropped only once to i5°,5o; at two o’clock; it was constantly maintained between 29%5o and 2O~,5o, it rose one day up to 28°. After sunset, the thermometer gave 20, 22 and 23°; the lowering of temperature during the night was from i to 3″, and only once from 6°, go.

Half an hour after sunset, when the sky was clear, there was always such an abundant dew falling in Oran, that he forbade staying outside for an hour to have his clothes crossed.~On July c), at four o’clock in the evening, I dipped my thermometer up to one meter below the surface of the sea, in front of Oran, and it rose to a5,5o; a little earlier, placed in the sand, on the beach, at o°’,3 deep, it

was mounted at 32″. I took the temperature of the sea water again on July 16 and 22, at four o’clock in the evening, and I found it from 2 to 3

5 and 2

,00.~Comparing day by day the maximum temperature of Oran with that of Algiers, we find it almost constantly higher in the latter city the difference sometimes goes up to / t ° but, according to what I have been told, the heat is much more constant in Oran than in~Algiers it rains much less often and the cold is almost never felt there, even in winter. That is why the average temperature of Oran is higher than that of Algiers thus, the isotherm line that passes through Algiers bends towards the North, going from East to West.

In the thirty-six days that I lived in Oran, it was very nice weather for twenty-five, five were rainy, and three times the rain was accompanied by thunderstorms but it lasted only a few hours. The fog of which I have already spoken, reigned during the other six days. Magnetic needle. Using one side of our triangles, the azimuth of which had been perfectly determined by means of the rising sun, we found that in the month of September ’85: 1 the declination of the magnetic needle was 1

,80 to the West or 320 centigrade. M. Bérard found it, with a Lenoir compass, of exactly 20°, which gives ‘c)%go, for the average. Boutin’s plan, made in 1808, gives ig”, which would indicate that the declination has increased by o%()o, in twenty-three years. The declination is therefore currently in Algiers much less considerable than in Paris in t85i, it was 22 ° i5 at the royal observatory of

this city. M. Bérard observed in Algiers the inclination of the needle with a Gambey instrument, and he found it, in the month of September 1851, of 58° 42′ 53″ y. The same observer found at the fort of Mers-el-Kebir, in Oran~o° g’

and on the terrace of the deBone Hospital, located 15 leagues east of Algiers, 17 ° 59′ for the declination of the magnetic needle from which it follows that, on the Barbary coast, this declination grows very quickly going from East to West.~The air is extremely healthy on the Barbary coast despite the carelessness of the inhabitants, who leave piles of garbage around the cities, who surround them with cemeteries, and who abandon the bodies of all the dead animals on the ground, there are no endemic diseases it is only on a few fairly advanced points in the land (plain of the~etidja) that marshy fumes produce intermittent fevers which we will talk about in the article diseases. The atmosphere is pure for the most part of the year, the fogs are quite rare, and the light mist, which is

watch almost always at sunrise disappears two hours after. Although during the whole morning a sea breeze, and in the afternoon a land breeze, come every day to refresh the bottom of the air that we breathe is almost always warm. We felt a great pleasure in breathing fresh air during the winter, and the ailments that the cold caused us were thus compensated for five months after my return to France, the pleasant sensation that I experienced when breathing fresh air was not yet in me.~Although the air is hot, it is always extremely humid (i), and this moisture settles on all the bodies when we wanted to have a pair of boots well dry, we were forced to expose it to the sun for half an hour and sometimes more. The water vapor spread in the atmosphere always kept in dissolution a small amount of sea salt. This sea salt increases to such an extent the action of moisture on

()) I didn’t have a hygrometer with me so,

i could not measure the amount of moisture spread in the air.

the oxidizable metals, that the weapons and the iron instruments exposed to the air rust in a few hours our soldiers had a lot of difficulty to keep their rifles clean our knives and our penknives rusted even in the pocket of the pants.~The phenomenon of which I have spoken above (p. i /p) would tend to prove that there is a certain arrangement of the molecules of the air, for which this fluid enjoys the property of double refraction, absolutely like the Icelandic spath.


The amount of water contained in the rivers and streams, of the portion of Barbarie that I visited, is not very considerable and this amount decreases a lot during the summer the rivers still retain some, but a large number of streams and lakes very extensive (south of Oran) completely dry up. When after the month of June the surface of the soil is dried up

there remain in the interior of the earth layers or streams of water which contribute powerfully to maintain the strength of the vegetation. On the shores of the sea and in all the hills that border the plain of the Metidja to the north, this water meets at a small depth during our stay in Sydi-Efroudj (month of June

83o), water was obtained everywhere by digging,~only 2 or 5 meters away; in the wells that are widespread in such large numbers in the countryside of Algiers, the water is often only 2 and 5 meters below the surface of the ground; very few of these wells are more than 6 meters deep. In the valleys and on the slopes of the hills and mountains, there are many springs that could perhaps become very abundant by means of some work the numerous aqueducts that bring water to all the districts of Algiers and the country houses in the vicinity of this city strongly prove in favor of this opinion.~In the plain of the Metidja, the water is found only at a certain depth, and still the greatest number of the wells dry up during the summer; but, I repeat here, by probing we would probably obtain gushing waters. Almost all the valleys of the Little Atlas have springs that never dry up. Beyond this chain, in the subatlantic hills the water is as close to the surface of the ground as in those on the seashore the wells of Medea are no deeper than those of the countryside of Algiers. I have not seen a single well in Oran or in the surrounding area. The water of the cisterns and that of the ruis-

buckets are suitable for the consumption of residents. We have already pointed out that we could win! there are Artesian wells in the great plain that extends to the south and east of this city; but I believe that we will never be able to obtain water on the plateaus of the Rammra Mountains. The water from the springs of wells, streams and rivers is generally of good quality; that which comes from the interior of the earth is always cool in summer; for its temperature rarely exceeds 18° centigrade. The running and stagnant waters are always more or less warm; I saw their temperature rise up to 2

°. The water that flows on a muddy bottom has a taste of earth; that of the pools and marshes is sometimes stinking in several of the wells of the Metidja it has a sulphurous smell. The water that we obtained at Sydi-Efroudj, while digging, was a little brackish, and it is to this poor quality that I attribute in large part, the diseases that overwhelmed the troops who remained at the guard of the entrenched camp.

In Barbary, fresh waters feed very few animals and plants. I will speak of those I found there when I deal with the different classes of organized beings.~On the North coast of Africa, the color of the sea is usually blue as in the entire Mediterranean, the water is crystal clear and never disturbed by the torrens that rush there, during the rainy season, more than 10 or 15 meters from the shores. At no time of the year have I seen the phosphorescent sea on the coast of Barbary, as I have seen it several times during the summer on the coasts of the English Channel. I have only noticed sometimes, in the port of Algiers and the small coves that are along the coast, a yellow-orange color that I believe to be due to the meeting of microscopic zoophytes. The tides are not felt in the ports of the regency where I stayed (Algiers, Oran and Mers-el-Kebir) only the action of the wind raises the level by an amount proportional to its intensity. But there are many hurricanes on the entire Barbary coast, regardless of the great general current, which comes from the Strait of Gibraltar and heads to the East. These courans intersect in all directions

which we can very well observe by

the traces they often leave on the surface of the water. Many are on the coast, and are extremely dangerous for ships that are too close to land during a calm. These volcanoes seem to me to owe their existence to the great general movement of the waters of the Mediterranean, from West to East, modified by the shapes of the coasts and the roughness of the bottom of the sea in the vicinity.~Our observations, continued for thirteen months, have demonstrated that Barbaric shit is not as dangerous as we had thought until that time; but landing on the beaches is not always possible, even when the sea is calm, because of the strong swell that is often felt there; and before venturing to approach land, ships must always send a boat to recognize the state of things. When the North, North-West and North-East winds prevail with a certain force, the Barbary coast is always dangerous, and sailors must stay away from it. The sea then breaks against the coast with an appalling noise, and the water thrown against the cliffs rises much above I saw it, by a North-West storm, pass through-

besides the fortifications of the mole of Algiers, which have 15 and 20 meters of elevation above the level of the Mediterranean.

The water, thus thrown along the coast, gathers in the cavities of the rocks and in the depressions of the ground where, evaporating, it leaves a crust of extremely white salt and of excellent quality. The ignorance and the carelessness of the Moors and the Arabs are so great, that they like better to buy the most expensive salt in the cities, than to pick up that which is thus spread in abundance on the seashore. In the vicinity of Algiers, a man could easily collect ten pounds of salt a day.

Near Cape Matifou there is a small salt lake communicating with the sea by means of a narrow channel and almost obstructed by the sands. I look at this lake as an old salt marsh, dug by the inhabitants of Rnstonium, and abandoned for a very long time. There are, as I was told, salt marshes in the vicinity of the city of Arzéo. This is where all the salt that the Arabs sell at the Oran market comes from. We will talk about this when dealing with the trade of this city.

An officer who went, long-time after my

departure of Oran, on the banks of the lake located in the Southeast of this city, I was told that the water was very saumatre.

The plants, zoophytes and marine animals that live on the Barbary coast, are little different from those found on the coasts of Spain, France and Italy, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Adriatic Sea they do not seem to be very numerous when the sea is rough it rejects very few on the edges. I collected all the plants, zoophytes and marine animals that I could get in Algiers and Oran. I will talk about this in detail in another chapter.


By describing the different groups of rocks that constitute the soil of the portion of the regency of Algiers that I studied

I have said what their influence was on the vegetation, but I have not spoken about the species of plants that grow in this country. I will do so now by helping myself to the beautiful works of Professor Desfontaines (i ) and those of several health officers attached to the African army. After giving the table of the main plant species that grow in Barbary, I will say which are the ones that your inhabitants cultivate in (i) Flora

ca, etc. Paris, year V! of the French republic.~the fields and in their gardens, and how they do it; those that they neglect, and from which we could take advantage, including what are the plants of Europe that it would be possible to naturalize in this country, finally, the advantage that agriculture will be able to take from the beautiful country that we have conquered, and of which the Romans had made a magnificent colony that they liked to call the granary of Italy.~The vegetation of the portion included

ntre the coast and the chain of the little Atlas is absolutely the same as that of the entire Mediterranean coastline (coasts of Spain, Provence, Italy, Syria, etc.); there are many trees and plants from temperate Europe, from the vicinity of Paris itself; our stone trees, pear trees, apple trees, walnut trees, etc., grow almost without cultivation in the gardens of Algiers, Belida, el Colea, etc. In the vicinity of the first city alone, we found seventy species of plants from the center of Europe. I quote some of them

-FM7~officinalis. Melilotus O

Mom~r~fej~’C~M~. ~oxyacantha.-Scabiosa ar(‘c/y. tS~r/M~i~. ~7~~or~ o~~. Co/wo~/M~. PSTN~~o ~M~r~co~M~

MercM~M~MCR-~i~M~ ~Ricinus 6~ ~0/M. y CO/M

. ilex,~~TZI/~M/Ï~J!’cus suber. Gladiol’zcs communis. Smilax~M-y~K/M c~~cr~. ~~c/Y~7c/7C~~M~. ~rM/z~~

~~t~~oyoi~z~etc., etc. I could mention a very large number of plant species that are found both on the coasts of Spain, Provence, Italy, Syria, etc. and on that of Barbary, but here is enough, I think, to show the similarity of the vegetation of this country with that of the entire part of the Mediterranean coastline, which botanists have been able to explore so far. Along with all these plants, there are others that are peculiar to Barbarism. I will give a renumeration of them, always grouping them by natural families. I establish two divisions in the first, there are the plants of the terrain between the sea and the mountains of the small Atlas; the second contains those that grow in the interior of these mountains.~o~P/a/ï~hill

er to Co/6a, from the plain of the Metidja and the surroundings~Ora/ï.~f~from 0/e/~nor d'(r

~M~only a few bunches of olive trees are spread here and there. Here are the most remarkable plants, cited by M. Desfontaines in the mountains of the small Atlas~These are the most remarkable species of plants that are found in the mountains~of the little Atlas the others are the same as those of Europe, and it must have been, since

the average temperature of these mountains differs very little from that of our countries.

The influence of a hot temperature without being scorching, combined with that of the soil, gives the vegetation a very great strength, in the portion of the Barbarity that we conquered I saw there parsnip stems of o’°, o3 in diameter, which rose up to three meters in height from the mallow leaves that covered an ordinary plate, and whose stems were large shrubs. The prickly pears (racket, c

) form thick hedges that rise four and five meters above the ground the agave hedges present a truly magnificent and imposing glance these long green and pointed leaves look like palisades intertwined one into the other, to defend the approach of a military post; from the middle of the clumps, rises majestically a shaft decorated with yellow flowers, which bears its head above that of all the other trees. The olive trees are as beautiful as our European oaks; the orange trees, the lemon trees, barely give way, for the size, to some of our most beautiful fruit trees. From the month of February, all portions of land

which are uncultivated and not lined with brushwood are covered with grasses that grow with such great rapidity, that after a month it is very difficult to walk in them. May 12, i83~c~o/)M~~by crossing several terrains of this kind, in the plain of the Metidja

the grass came up to our underarms.~It is easy to understand that, in a country where vegetation is so active, all plants must grow and spread there without cultivation, even those that have been introduced from other countries. This is indeed what is happening our plants from Europe, those from Africa and even those from America, which have probably been brought, grow naturally and reach extraordinary dimensions. This circumstance is extremely happy; for the Algerians, naturally lazy and careless, completely neglect agriculture in the interior of their gardens even, they do not plow the land at the foot of the fruit trees, and the wild herbs that grow under them rise to the middle of the height of the trunk (f). (i) We must not believe that it was our presence in Africa that caused this negligence before the taking~From the shores of the sea to the foot of the Atlas, the portions of land that have never been cultivated, and we could well say two thirds of the surface of the ground are covered with strong brushwood whose height often exceeds that of a man. On the hills of the coast, these brushwood are y largely composed of Ze

among which we see, in greater or lesser quantity, tufts of Strawberry trees, of 0

, of Laurels, of Date Palms /~~Me~, from C~6~, and some bushes of Myrtles and Thorns. On the plain, the Lentisci and Strawberry trees are much rarer they are replaced by a large quantity of thorny Brooms which rise to two and three meters. There are almost never any trees in the middle of these brushwood; the ones that we meet there, very rarely, are bad olive trees and some large date palms, which always cover with their leaves tombs gathered around a Marabout.~t/z~The marshy places, the beds of the ruis-~c/z~ ~er~dAlger, almost all the orchards we passed through were in such a state.

buckets, those of the rivers and even those of the roofs, which are located at. dry for the greater part of the year, are filled with Lauy’ro

these shrubs, in bloom during the summer, present the most laughing glance in the middle of a wild country. In the plain and some parts of the hills that are to the north there are little extensive forests, it is true, magnificent olive trees can be found on the banks of the Ouad-jer, the Chiffa and the Mazafran. These forests are composed of trees as large as our ordinary oaks; but as they are generally of poor quality, there are only a very small number that could be used for constructions. Olive forests are quite common along the northern slope of the small Atlas. The uncultivated portions of these mountains, and consequently the greater part of their surface, are covered, up to half the height, approximately, with brushwood similar to those of the hills of Algiers; then come forests composed entirely of Holm oaks and Z

g in the middle of which we see here and there some P~. The trees are of a very bad origin; there is not a single one that can be used to build them-~naval operations. ; The most beautiful trees that I have seen, it is after having passed the Tapeworm pass six hundred meters south of this point they were lieges and holm oaks of o”~6 to i”

2 in diameter; but they were almost all crooked and not very high. The oaks of the Atlas give sweet acorns which are used for the food of the Berbers~Arabs and even Moors. In the south of the small Atlas, the strength of the vegetation is much less great than in the North we notice a vast expanse of arid terrain the brushwood is far from being as thick and as high as those of the plain of the Metidja and the hills of Algiers; we no longer see the Date palm or the~but still Lentiscs, G~/ï6~r~oM~holm oaks and Thorns, Oleanders no longer decorate the courses of rivers and streams, and the marshes are no longer covered only by Jb~and reeds that the Berber savage uses to build his puny hut.~The Date palm is quite rare in the country we have traveled; the naturals do not cultivate it, those we see there are wild and scattered here and there on the plains, on the hills, in the middle of brushwood and uncultivated land-~c~tes; there are also some of them in the gardens. The fruits that gives. this tree is linden and quite bad to eat; the good dates that we eat in Algiers come from the South. The date tree is the tree of ruins and tombs we notice it in all cemeteries and almost always one near each marabout; it is very rare that the somewhat considerable ruins are not announced by some date tree that rises from their interior.

As we have already said, the dwarf date palm (chamerops palm) forms tufts in the middle of the brushwood and in uncultivated places, it rarely rises to more than two meters in height, it bears lime fruits and whose core is very large; however the Arabs still eat them. When this shrub is young, the heart is extremely tender, so the Algerians eat it raw and cooked we sell a lot of it at fairs and markets.

The cultivated fields, the walls of the cities, the isolated houses in the countryside the small hamlets of the Arabs are surrounded by strong hedges of snowshoes, whose fruits are used for the food of the inhabitants; of agaves, from the leaves of which they derive a species of jP

and a

tH as beautiful and as precious as silk, with which they make fabrics highly esteemed by them. I~~r~~BSC

E. they come into bloom in May before, we see the stems growing with such great speed, that we could almost follow with the eye the progress they are making. The flowers of the Snowshoes are earlier; they usually begin to show themselves in the first days of April and then the flowers and fruits follow one another throughout the summer. The first fruits ripen in mid-June, and they are still picked in November. These fruits form a large part of the food of the Moors and Arabs for four months of the year. The bitter Orange and Lemon trees are wild they grow in the valleys around Algiers and on the sides of the mountains. These trees are very beautiful; we almost always see them covered with flowers and fruits, and we can recognize them, without seeing them, by the pleasant smell that they spread all around them. The Algerians distill the flower and make excellent water from it.~The Pomegranate tree grows in large quantities throughout Barbary it is found on the mountains, in the valleys and in the middle of the plains.~~Mixed with the olive tree, snowshoes and reeds, it forms completely impenetrable hedges. In the month of April it begins to be covered with flowers, whose beautiful red color, which contrasts on a dark green background, strikes the eye at a great distance. The fruits succeed the flowers, and in August we eat perfectly ripe pomegranates; they are in such great abundance in the vicinity of Algiers, that we had up to six for a penny.

The broad-leaved Myrtle grows in hedges and in brushwood; it blooms in April and then bears a berry that we eat when it is black, although it is a little bitter. OK

r, so common in our southern provinces and whose fruits have a great analogy with strawberries, is also found in abundance on the Barbary coast Algerians eat arbouses with delight. Almost throughout the year these shrubs bear flowers and fruits but from November to March, the fruits do not come to maturity. There

it is very cultivated in the regency of Algiers; but it is also found in the wild in hedges, in the woods and even in the brushwood. The grapes she carries~they are much smaller and less beautiful than those of the cultivated land; however they are still very large and of a very pleasant taste. I have often picked grapes in the hedges of Algiers that are better and larger than those of many of our French vineyards. The wild grapes are black and white.~g~The olive tree is extremely common in the north of the small Atlas it forms forests it is found in hedges, in brushwood and in the middle of fields but nowhere have I seen the olive tree cultivated as in Provence this is probably the reason why its fruits are so small, although the trees are magnificent. I was told that in the Atlas the Berbers cultivated it, and this is confirmed by the large amount of oil and large candied olives that they bring to Algiers. The wood of the olive tree burns perfectly, although green all our ailments were forgotten when after great fatigues we came to camp in the middle of an olive forest.


grow well in the hills and in the plains. This tree has recently been imported to Africa, because we only meet a few of them inside the properties-

particular tees, and on the side of the paths. In the portion of the road from Algiers to Belida that crosses the strip of hills, there are two charming cafes, shaded by beautiful Aspens and magnificent weeping willows. On the slope of the hills, at the foot of which lie these cafes, rise five or six pines of the most beautiful appearance and whose last branches spread out like those of the cedar. Although we find pines in the North of Africa, the other trees of the cold countries are missing there however so I have never seen a C~Mp~r~NM~. y (quercus robur), Golden/y

from Hornbeams, Birches, Beeches, etc. In the uncultivated fields / and even in the middle of some brushwood, there grows a large quantity of small Roses quite similar to those of Bengal, which are covered, during the summer, with flowers whose scent delights the sense of smell by guiding the steps of the young Arab who is looking for them to adorn her bosom.~e~That’s about all the trees that grow without cultivation in the part of the regency of Algiers that I visited. The ordinary fig tree and the jujube tree also grow in the same way, but they are almost always cultivated;~that is why I will put off talking about it in the next chapter. Now I will say a few words about the main plants.

Cardoons, Celery, Persil, several speciesd

carrots, Parsnips, etc., which we cultivate with great care in our gardens in France come naturally in the vicinity of Algiers. At the edge of almost all the streams, celery stalks, asparagus can be found in all the hedges and even in the brushwood. The cardoons grow in very large quantities at the foot of the hills, in the. northern part of the plain of the Metidja, and particularly on both banks of the Mazafran.

Absinthe, which is very common on the northern slope of Mount Bou-Zaria, on the hills, in the hedges, on the first forts of the small Atlas, forms a beautiful shrub two meters high. This plant spreads an extremely strong odor; it could be distilled with great advantage.~pe~~Lavender is also found in stony terrain and in brushwood but it is quite rare: the same is true of the Serpolet. Fennel, Carrots, and a few others

umbelliferae, take on gigantic dimensions on the coast of Africa.


grow in great abundance around Algiers, in the many cemeteries that surround this city, in general in the vicinity of lime and sand buildings, and especially ruins. We have already said how much development these plants take in leaves and stems.

Thistles are few in number, although there are many uncultivated lands on the coast of Barbarie I don’t remember seeing any in the plain of Métidja~c~is very common in hedges; it grows with extraordinary strength its magnificent leaves are very apt to strike the imagination of artists, and when we see them we can perfectly imagine that the Greeks made them part of the composition of their most beautiful order of architecture (the Corinthian).

The pastures of the plain of the Metidja present the same species of grasses as those of Europe. There are also several bulbous plants, Narcissus Orchis, Tulips, etc., but above all an immense amount of O

L’~c~ï~seilla (scilla

Gentleman/~o~Mï); this plant also grows~in the brush of the hills but it is much less common than in the plain. In the month of August we see the scille stems, which rise up to i~5o and even two meters, garnish with beautiful white flowers. In the middle of the brushwood these flowering stems look like Bedouins covered with their white barnacles it often happened to us, when we saw them at a certain distance, to mistake them for enemies who came to attack us. The /7th/

) that Moorish and Arab women use to dye their nails the inside of their hands and the underside of their feet, certainly grows in the Atlas or at the foot of these mountains because the Berbers bring a lot of it to Algiers but I have never seen this plant alive.~Cryptogams, if I judge from what I have seen, are rare on the territory of the regency there are almost no Mosses and very few Lichens Ferns seem to be repressed in the mountains in the middle of the forests of the small Atlas I found the same fern as in our woods in central France. Mushrooms are very rare so it may come from the great heat of the summer.~e ( ~w~o~M t~r/M~Only one species of this family struck me, it is the one that we ate Paris (


). I found it in fairly large quantities, during the months of September and October, in the uncultivated orchards of Mount Bou-Zaria and the brush of the hills from Algiers to el Colea. I have eaten these mushrooms; they are just as pleasant as those from France and not at all evil.~the waters on the Barbary coast than on those of France.~ c~. ~~r~PLANTM AND CULTIVATED TREES!).

After having made known the main plants that grow naturally in the area I am describing, it is necessary to say which are the ones that the inhabitants cultivate in the fields and in the gardens, how they do it, and what benefits they derive from this culture. I will first talk about the trees, which are the same as those of southern Europe, and then about the main species of plants.

We find in the gardens of Algiers of el Colea, Belida, Oran, Medea, etc., almost all our fruit trees in the center of France Apple trees, Pear trees, Plum trees, Apricot trees, Cherry trees, etc. but these trees are not grafted, and being very poorly cultivated and very often not at all, they give fruits very inferior to those of our countries, both for the quality and for the size the apricots especially are malignant,, they give fever and fever dysentery. The Europeans who came in June to Barbary not being warned

were eating

The 7Vo~grows very well in Barbary, and especially in the small Atlas. Its fruits are good, but very small the inhabitants do not use them to make oil.

The two varieties of fig trees of Provence (the white and the black) are found in the orchards from Algiers to the southern slope of the Atlas. In the first days of March, the figs show themselves with the leaves, and in June we already have good ones to eat. Fig trees bear a very large amount of fruit; but the little care that is taken of them, combined with the all-consuming ardor of the sun, makes that~three-quarters dry out on the trees and do not ripen. In the Atlas, where the heat is less and the trees are much better cared for than in Algiers, the figs come well in maturity, and are as good as those of Provence. The Berberes bring a lot to the march of Algiers.

The Jujube tree is extremely common throughout the Barbary Coast, it comes without cultivation but it is in orchards that it is found more especially. This tree hardly rises more than to

d or 5 meters it is one of the earliest and one of the first too that loses its leaves. These begin to appear again in the month of March, and even at the end of February; the flowers succeed them shortly after they are developed, and in the month of June the jujubes are good to eat. We pick them then, and take them to the market in large baskets I don’t know if the Algerians dry the jujubes, but they eat a lot of fresh ones.

The Carob tree lives in the fields and in the orchards; it acquires extraordinary dimensions the one that is near the marabout of Sydi~Mcrr

at the gate of Bab-el-Ouad, is one of the most beautiful trees I have ever seen. L~carob tree always keeps its leaves in the vicinity of Algiers; it bears many excellent carob trees, which the Moors and the Arabs eat with great pleasure.~/m~tiou of flesh, and whose envelope is as good to eat as a queen’s apple. There are no lemons in Algiers during the whole year we have often been forced to resort to those from Spain and France.

It is in the plain of the Metidja, and especially at the foot of the small Atlas, that orange trees are cultivated in very large quantities and with a care that leaves nothing to be desired. In several of the farms of this plain (

tOMcA in Arabic ) we found superb orange orchards but none of these plantations can be compared to those surrounding the city of Belida, and of which we have already spoken (i) when describing the battles that bloodied this unfortunate city. The orange gardens extend to i ,000 meters from Belida, to the North, South and East they are enclosed by adobe walls. The trees are very well cared for, the earth is picked at their foot, and around each, there is a small dug basin, communicating by a notch with a small channel, which passes between two lines of trees, and which, at certain times,

(t) Relationship of /a~TC C

MC.~MC~bring the water from a stream into the basins, which we divert immediately to water the orange trees during the summer. By means of all these precautions, the trees grow with great rapidity and become very strong after a few years, those of Belida do not yield, for pruning, to any of the trees of our European gardens. Here, the sweet orange trees bear only once a year they bloom in the month of June; and on November 15th, when we came to attack Belida, they were covered with fruits that stood out in yellow on a dark green background and presented, in the midst of the noise and the horrors of war, the most laughing glance that can be imagined. We were, at Belida, an army corps of eight thousand men, each of whom ate or destroyed at least fifty oranges, which makes a total of four hundred thousand. Well, when we left, it was not noticeable on the trees, and a month later, returning from Medea with General Boyer, the inhabitants of Belida came to sell us oranges and gave us six for a penny. The oranges of Belida are as big and as good as those of Mallorca. Arab €~T~give up to four for a penny; but towards the end of the season, in the month of February, they cost a penny a piece and sometimes two. The

it comes perfectly in Barbarism; the Moors and the Arabs cultivate it, in their gardens and their orchards, for its fruits only (it is the red mulberry) they are too lazy to raise silkworms.< les Maures les conduisent à Alger, où ils en

There~M~M is certainly, the. plant that all the inhabitants of the regency of Algiers, Moors, Arabs, Berbers, etc., cultivate more: in all the gardens there are perfectly kept trellises; we also see a lot of them in the square courtyards that are in the center of all the Moorish houses. To the north and south of the Petit Atlas, the inhabitants cultivate the vine in the open field the rooms of vines are surrounded by hedges we prune the wood as in France, we layer it to make provins we pick the soil at least twice during the summer and we visit the vines occasionally. in time. The Algerians do not use shallots the vine rises naturally or crawls on the earth.

Grapes are the best fruit that can be eaten in Barbary the harvest is always~very abundant. The most common and most esteemed species is a Chasselas which does not seem to me to differ from that of Fontainebleau, both for the taste and for the appearance. It is this species that is particularly cultivated in the mountains of the small Atlas the Berberes bring a large quantity of it to Algiers. There is a second one very similar, but whose log is bigger and a little worse. We also see several species of black and gray grapes with small grains those of the trellises are Chasselas, Malagas of a prodigious size,

and a big red grape quite similar to Malaga but which almost never comes to maturity.

The vine begins to grow at the end of March; it is in bloom in the first days of June, and in July we have grapes in abundance; June 3o 83~M~cc~we ate delicious grapes in Oran. This plant grows in Barbarism with amazing strength in the fields we find vines larger than the arm; the trellises of the gardens are composed of vines of all beauty.

In Oran, in the north courtyard of the new Kasba, I saw a vine planted next to~of a fountain, it is true, the diameter of which was o”

2 5 or 8 inches 6 lines; the branches formed a trellis that covered a space fifteen meters long by eight wide or 120 square meters. I counted on this trellis a thousand grapes, each of which weighed more than two pounds. It’s one of the most beautiful things I’ve seen since I’ve been traveling (i).

Although it has been written in several works that before the devastation that the grasshoppers made in i~the wines of Algiers were as esteemed as those of the Hermitage I can say that it is not to make wine that the Algerians cultivate the vine it is to eat the grapes, or make jams and a kind of very thick cooked wine. The Berberes make a lot of raisins, which they come to sell in Algiers during the winter, they are the best of all those that are sold at the market in this city. However, when we had taken Medea, we found wine made by the inhabitants there, and (i) If anyone doubts the veracity of this fact, let him consult all the officers of the 21* line regiment who observed it like me.

that they sold us a Rabia-boudjou (nine cents) per liter it was white wine quite pleasant to drink it was kept on its lees in large terracotta jars. It was among the Jews that we found them in greater quantity. The cultivation of the vine is certainly one of the best undertakings that we can do in the new colony that we want to form with perseverance, we could obtain in Algiers all the qualities of wine that we have in Spain.~g~The Banana Tree (Musa

) is cultivated in some of the gardens of Algiers and Oran; it comes very well and bears fruits that can be eaten. This tree is not native to Barbary, it was probably brought there from America.

We find in the gardens of Algiers almost all the ornamental trees that we have in France; the Catalpas, the~M~yay from Judea, Hydrangeas, Acacias, etc.; we often see Cypress alleys there, and some of these isolated trees rise to a great height. The gardens of the rich people are perfectly decorated and kept with care many flowers are grown there which are mixed without any gold-

dre with each other. During the summer, the diversity of color and shape of all these flowers flatters the eye~r~but the ones that pass by cannot be easily replaced, their withered stems contrast unpleasantly in the middle of the flower beds. The flowers that are grown in Algiers are the same as those of Provence and almost all of France.

Vegetable gardens are far from presenting this variety of vegetables that we notice in those of Europe. When we arrived in Algiers, in the month of June, at which time the vegetation is in full activity, we found no other vegetables than Onions, Concom~pumpkins, long peppers and Tomatoes: this is what the vegetables of Barbarism are limited to a very short time ago; however, in November, we found in the gardens of Médéya a very large quantity of very good cabbages but nowhere have I seen Carrots, Raves, Salsify, etc. these excellent roots seem to be unknown to the Algerians. In the fields, these peoples grow Peas, Lentils, Beans and beans/

co. y ( Cicer~re~), you piece of shit. These vegetables thrive very well, and~The potatoes are grown in the regency of Algiers but they don’t come well there; the ones I saw were no bigger than a pigeon’s egg. We found potato fields in the vicinity of Algiers they were good to eat in June. On arriving at Belida, on the i5th of November, we found them in the same condition as they are in France in the month of July; a large part of them were torn off, and thus small potatoes, large as nuts and~r~zM~fort good to eat. These potatoes had been planted in the first days of August this proves that you can get two crops per year. This is very much what are the vegetables that are grown in the gardens of Algiers; but, with a little work you can grow all those of France sowing in the month of February, when the ground is still very wet, you would get an abundant harvest in the month of June, and by the arrosemens artificial one could be purchased throughout the year. It is the rest that have fully confirmed the tests made in the garden of HassanBacha, by two French officers. I turn now to the grain.

There are a few cultivated fields in the vicinity of Algiers

but it is mainly in the plain of the Métidja, on the versans of the two chains that surround it, to the South of the Atlas mountains, in the vicinity of Médéya and in the plains of the province of Oran that we sow the grain. Wheat Pear is the Triticum

M/M; it is a species whose stem is full, bearded ear and the horny grain not very floury. The Arabs call him Jennah-nessr. There is also rye quite similar to ours, which we L l4~sows in wet areas, where it grows very well. Only one species of barley is known (7/br~Yxn?)

which is sown at the beginning of winter, in the month of January, and which is harvested in mid-June. The Arabs and the Berbers begin to sow wheat towards the end of October and the sowing often lasts until well before December. The harvest takes place at the end of June and in the first days of July, not only on the entire coast, but also south of the mountains of the little Atlas.~~z ~~The Moors, the Arabs and the Berbers do not know, oats are barley that they give to their horses to replace it, Although I do not deal with the arts in this chapter, I will however say how the sowing is done in Barbarism.~The C

6 which the Arabs use has no wheels, it is the same as that of Spain and Provence, but it is much more roughly made than in these two parts of Europe the pieces of wood which compose it are barely debarked, and very often the soc, the shape of a very hard wood, does not bear iron. Instead of an ear to turn the earth over,

this is a simple ankle crossing the amount that fixed the soc to the tree at the end of it is a lifter is very long, which are fasteners, at side and at a great distance from one another, two oxen, or an ox and a donkey, a cow and a donkey, etc, but rarely in horses. A man is holding the tail of the plough, and another leads the oxen. With this crew, they are rubbing against the surface of the soil so little, regularly, by looking at a field newly plowed it looks like it has been searched by a herd of pigs.~r/~The Arabs rarely pass the plow twice in the fields they want to sow. They never carry manure there; sometimes, only, they cut the grass and the brushwood of which they make small piles, which they leave to dry for a few days; they then set fire to it and spread the ashes over the surface of the field. When they want to clear a portion of land, they set fire to it towards the end of the summer, and a little later they spend the plow there without bothering to extract the roots or the half-burned stumps that still protrude several inches above the ground. After plowing a field, they

throw the grain over it, then pass a bad wooden harrow or a bundle of thorns, which an ass or an ox drags, and they abandon it afterwards until the time of harvest. A large part of the grain buried in this way covered by clods, stumps and stones, cannot get out of the ground and is lost. Hence it comes that the wheats are beautiful, but always extremely clear, and thus the soil does not render half of what it could render if it were well worked. It is claimed, however, that barley and wheat yield up to twelve to one in good years, and eight in mediocre years. I will talk elsewhere about agriculture in great detail, and I will tell you how the cereals are harvested and how to preserve them.

I didn’t see that the M

was much cultivated in the country that I describe. We find a few feet of it in the potato fields, in the vineyards, etc. along the paths of their vegetable gardens, the Moors and the Arabs plant corn from India, from which they pick the penouille. green to put in the stews they make.

The Arabs sow a lot, to fatten up~their poultry, a species of white millet that they call drak, they also prune it under the stone, and cook it like rice.

Rice is widely cultivated in the province of Oran, especially in the portion of the Metidja, located to the west of Ouad-Jer, and in the other plains that are located on the highway from Algeria to Oran. In the middle of these plains flow small streams, which are used to water the rice fields; I don’t know when we sow the rice or when we harvest it, it seems that we also collect a very large quantity in the vicinity of Constantine.

Natural and artificial meadows are quite unknown in Barbarism; the inhabitants of this country graze their cattle in all seasons of the year. As for the horses, of which they take infinitely more care than the other animals, they also give them broken straw and barley, but never hay. However, as I have already said, there is nothing easier than’ harvesting hay in the regency of Algiers in the spring, the uncultivated land is covered with excellent grasses that rise to more than a meter in height. In June i85i, we mowed down a very large quantity, and

we thus obtained excellent hay, which our horses and mules ate perfectly. To have hay in these countries, there is nothing else to do but to enclose the land, in order to prevent the herds from coming to graze there, and by mowing in the first days of June we would get two harvests. There are, in the plain of the Metidja, very extensive pastures without brushwood, and of which we could make excellent meadows.

What I have just explained about the different species of plants that grow naturally and by cultivation in the portion of the regency of Algiers that I was able to visit proves, it seems to me, that this country is one of the most fertile that we know. If agriculture was there, when we arrived, in such a great state of withering if more than half of the surface of the ground was covered with brushwood, we must attribute it to the laziness of the inhabitants, and to the sanguinary despotism under which they lived. May

I don’t know if the

sugar, alcohol

cotton, etc., may be cultivated on the coast of Algiers; but without these plants there are many others from which great advantages could be derived.~e~Harsh winters have almost destroyed all the olive trees in Provence, and we may soon run out of olive oil in France. Well, in Africa we would have olive plantations that would not be afraid of frost, and which would provide abundant harvests. When we would be forced to give the oil to i franc per kilogram~there would still be profit to be made from it. Mulberry trees, cultivated as they are in our southern provinces, would make it possible to raise a large quantity of silkworms, and thus obtain silk at a much cheaper price than we have now.

Many fruits, which we get from Spain and Portugal, would be given to us by Africa. If we can’t naturalize sugar cane there, we plant beets there~we will have very beautiful ones and in very large quantities. They will be brought to France, or else they will be

There are sweets in our African cities. Cotton and indigo will definitely come there~it will be enough to look for suitable exposures to place them, and the rugged terrain between the sea and the great plain of the Metidja will not fail to attract a crowd. Perhaps, by following this method, we could successfully cultivate, in the vicinity of Algiers, several plants from America and the East Indies, whose seeds and fruits are the object of a great trade; but whatever we do, I do not think that we will ever succeed in naturalizing coffee; this shrub requires a warmer and less humid climate than that of the Barbary Coast.~I conclude here what has to do with the vegetable kingdom, and I urge the farmers who have gone to settle in our possessions on the North coast of Africa to make many attempts, but in small, so as not to exhaust their capital, of which they must first employ the greater part in enterprises of certain success, such as olive plantations, mulberry trees; the cultivation of vines, wheat, beets, etc.

Faithful to the method that I have followed since the beginning of this work, and which I believe everyone must follow, from the simple to the compound, we will begin the history of the animals that live in the regency of Algiers, with the simplest, the Polypiers, some of which form the passage between the vegetable kingdom and the animal kingdom; we will then gradually rise in the scale of beings, and we will thus arrive at man, of whom there are seven different groups or varieties in the part of the regency of Algiers that I visited. I will give the main characters of each of these varieties, and I will describe their manners and habits, before talking about the cities, hamlets and

Despite all my research, I have not been able to discover any individual of this class of the animal kingdom in the fresh waters of Barbary; but the sea has offered me several species which, moreover, are the same as those which live on the coasts of France and Italy. Here they are classified in order of family.


M equina (LiN.), viridis, J and two other individuals in poor condition that we could not determine.

ACALEPHES me~C~and velella, two genera whose individuals arrived in too bad a condition for us to have been able to determine the species. CORALS, Cariophyllafastigiata, C. ramea, C. cespilosa, C. C

CM/ (ESPER.) -Go/~M~srrMCo~-jRe~0~e~~ora cellulosa, Retepora /~zCM~The red coral is very common on the. north coast of Africa the French, the Italians and the Spaniards have been fishing for it, for many years, in the eastern part from Bonp to the Calle. Everyone knows that we had, in this last port, establishments under the protection of a fort for fishing dn~coral. While I was in Africa, we still sent war builders to these areas to protect the crews of the corailleurs. From March to July i 8~Spaniards and Corsicans came to fish for coral in the harbor of Oran I saw there, in the month of July, up to twelve coral fishermen at a time they told me they were perfectly satisfied with their fishing. The Oran coral is of excellent quality

and the pieces are beautiful. There are certainly many other points on the coast on which we could fish for coral; I believe that we would find a fairly large amount of it in the Bay of Algiers, as well as in the vicinity of Capes Caxine and Matifou.~. MOP. The sea throws a lot of sponges on the coast from the tip of Sydi-Efroudj to Cape Matifou, some of which are quite beautiful, and can be used for the toilet. I have collected a very large number of them, which, however, form only four species Spongia lactuca, Esper.; co~ID.; /

. I also collected a species of the genus Es~~Mm~’ny

. Onvoi

~o~on all the rocks~which are at a small depth along the coasts, a very large quantity of Sea Urchins (Echinus esculentus, LiN.) that we eat in certain seasons in the same way as in Provence. We also find, but in less abundance, another 6C~/im. y bigger.

Asterias are uncommon in Algiers. I found three species, Asterias aurantiaca (LiN.), and two others that their poor state of conservation has not made it possible to determine; two in Oran, Asterias glacialis and~variolata (LAM. ).

Among the Ophiures, I will mention the O~~er~Mm texturata from Lamark, which is extremely common in Algiers, and just as good to eat as in Provence.

I have collected only two species of the genus JMo~H. impatiens (Lm.),

MULLER.~Mr~Cephalopods. I was only able to get two species of this family of mollusks from fish fishermen, the ones they sell at the market, Loligo~< ~Mm~born; but it has been impossible for me to procure more of them, and I urge the naturalists who are now in Algiers to take more special care of them than I have been able to do.

c&Y. All the shells that I brought back from the coasts of Barbarie were studied by M. Michaud lieutenant in the 10″ regiment of the line. This scientist has compiled a very complete catalog of them~

which has just been published in the MeMo

y~~from the Natural History Society of Strasbourg, J and from which I borrow everything that follows about these animals.~Sea shells. The species that live on the Barbary coast differ little or no from those that are found on the other parts of the Mediterranean coast Mr. Michaud cites only one C~era

for one~CM/e, neighbor of t’CM~and a Cerite, close to Cerithium T; M/g~which present new characters; but he does not believe them important enough to authorize new species to be made. He describes in great detail the Trochus rarelineatus, which is quite common on the coast of Algiers~? ~re~x~as a species still very little known.~M7~It has been seen (Chapter III) that, among the shells~fossils of the Siibatlantic tertiary terrain the univalves were much less numerous than the bivalves; the same is true for the living shells, which establishes a remarkable analogy between the current sea and that in which the tertiary layers were deposited.

Freshwater shells. I have not seen any molluscs in the streams and rivers of the territory of Algiers

although I have often cherished it; it is only in the stream that crosses Oran that I found, in very great abundance, the Melanopsides buccinoidea, accompanied by only a few individuals of the planorbis

y./? zo/M~and Physa contorta. The latter is a smaller variety than the species found in the Pyrenees and Sicily; its color is more rembruned, and its peristome is always bordered with white.~Terrestrial shells. The terrestrial shells are extremely numerous in the regency, over the entire surface of the country that we have traveled. They are almost the same everywhere, in the plains, on the hills of the coast, and in the mountains of the little Atlas. During the course of my observations, I had often had occa-~sion to notice that these mollusks reach, c! Africa, a much greater development of tourism in France, and Mr. Michaud fully confirms this remark. “By examining the shells x of Algiers, I have acquired a new proof,” he says, “that the molluscs of the southern regions 😉 reach a much greater development” than those of temperate or northern climates. It seems that, although delicate, these “animals were created for hot countries; “because it is only there that they acquire all the acx growth of which they are susceptible it is )) still there that the genera, the species and the )) varieties are the most multiplied. »

All the terrestrial molluscs that I have collected in Barbary belong to the genera Helix, Bulimus, .

Cyclostoma. The genus Helix is much more numerous than the others; I have collected eighteen species:

H. naticoides, H. cespituni, H. soluta, H. candidis~c~M~H.~< H. ~c~e~erog~M~tCM/~H.~hot, these are /Hcro~tCM/~

f. trites, H. cariosula and H. Rozeti.~The first seems to be a well-known species. dye the name she was given is taken from the various stains on her dress. It has a little the shape of the Helix nemoralis, but it is more solid and less elevated; it differs especially by the drawings, which are always repeated in an analogous way on all the individuals of its species. The second one looks a little like the Helix hortensis; however it differs from it by its opening, the little elevation of its turn, its color, and some other characters.~ ~The third form the passage between the Helix c

and the Helix cariosa.

Finally, the fourth is a shell in the form of a barter, convex below, having the turn a little elevated, whitish, fasciated or stained in various ways by a more or less dark color; it has a narrow umbilicus, six almost flat turns of turn, the last of which is strongly keeled; the opening is compressed, the peristome simple and sharp, and the apex obtuse. The Bulimus decollatus is found everywhere it is very abundant in the vicinity of Algiers and Oran, where it does a lot of damage in the~c~~ti~~gardens during the summer. This bulime is much larger than in France; but the Bulimus radiatus of Barbary is smaller than that of our southern regions. The Bulimus pupa, which until now had only been encountered in Sicily and the Morea, is quite common on the Barbary coast. The Bulimus acutus, which is very abundant on our southern coasts, is also found in large quantities in the vicinity of Algiers the funeral stones

are often covered with it. I have collected only two species of the genus

Poireti, who also lives in Italy, in Zante and in the Morea~and Folliculus, of which there are two varieties in Africa, the largest, which is exactly similar to the one that Mr. Michaud has been discovered in the vicinity of Montpellier, and the other, very pretty, which is more elongated.~c~ï/z~by its suture and by its lattice but especially by its operculum, which does not resemble any of those of the other species of this genus. These are all the terrestrial shells that I have collected in the portion of Barbarism that we have traveled. If there are others, they are rare and very few species, because everywhere I went I always brought back all the shells that I found. I doubt that those who will go to Barbarism after me will make great discoveries in this part of natural history.~I make two divisions in the fish :

Mrins and

OMC’e.~Fish /K~e~M c~/7/ The coast of Barbara from Algiers to Oran is very fishy; the Moorish and Spanish sinners that I saw on this coast were doing good business. In my two crossings from Algiers to Oran and from Oran to AIge

I have often seen the building surrounded by a large amount of Bonito, Tuna and, df Porpoises. The latter did not follow the building like the others but he passed some’*~often troops at a certain distance: we also saw several fish T~/M get out of the sea and make a journey of several hundred meters in the air without touching the water. We also meet Sharks and Mar

– MM-hmm?, which can be recognized, at a great distance, by their dorsal fin which comes out from much above the water when they come close to the surface. Seals are still quite common around here; I have seen them several times come for a walk without fear at half a rifle range from the cliffs. In the Bay of Oran where the sea is very shallow, the waves often throw seals on the sand at such a great distance that they can no longer flee and let themselves be caught, however throwing terrible screams. The soldiers of the 2~o~regiment of the line have taken several during their stay i in this city.~I procured from the fishermen and I collected myself a fairly large number of species of marine fish from the coasts of Algiers. These species did not show any difference from those found in other parts of the Mediterranean. I quote, however, the main~SERRANU8

Linen. cabrilla, Cuv. gigas, Cuv.

TRIGLA hirundo, Bloch.~cr~~Scopp

NA serosa, Lin. Marbled variety of



RiSS. DENTEX 7miCrOp~M~M~rM~Cuv.~rM~~Boops salpa, Cuv. SMARis vulgaris, Cuv. LiCMA. glaucus, TEMNODON saltator, Cuv. GOBIU8 C~MM~Cuv. GOBIUS cruentus, Gm. Juns Mediterranea, Riss.-J. /? z6

variety without orange band.~p~O~CRENILABRUS~7z~~

Riss. C. /Me


Riss.~M~SCYLLIUM canicula, Cuv., etc.~ro~There are still several species of large

fish that I didn’t bring back, because they are too dinicile to keep.


The rivers and freshwater lakes of Barbary seem to be little stocked with fish, and the species that live there are little varied it is true that occupying only a very small area of country, we could not explore them far inland; but I had paid Arabs to fish on points where we could not go; they always brought me the same species and in very small quantities. Here are what these species are

In the e/2


r. MuciL cephalus, which also lives in the sea, and which was sinned not far from the mouth of the Arrach.~BEARD~ ~g~Cuv. Mr. Agassis believes that this is not the real Barbus vulgaris but a new species.

MuRjENA anguilla, Lin. Mr. Helena id. In the vicinity of Oran. BEARDED vulgaris? Much more common than in Algiers.~M/g~r~wall

ENA conger, taken near the mouth of the Oran Stream in the sea. These are all the species of freshwater fish that . I was able to get myself. These waters still nourish

batracians~reptiles and crustaceans

which we are going to talk about.~RANA 6~. Linen. Black variety.

wpor~CM~M~Linen. and two other species that Mr. Duvernoy considers new, but which he has not yet described.

R. ~All C/Y~ry~~that I have reported are very big

greenish, with brown spots. Mr. Duvernoy thinks that they form two new species or at least two varieties of the same species which also seems to exist at the Cape of Good Hope, but which has not yet been found elsewhere.~ïM~There is in the ponds around Algiers, in very great abundance, a small gray snake, which is close to the Coluber / H species~Earth serpens are few and far between in the country we are describing. We no longer find there those great serpens of which the authors speak 1:

tins the largest that I have seen are snakes that are at most a meter long and

who live in the holes in the walls, and the reeds that form the roofs of the huts of the Berbers and the Arabs.~The species that I have reported are the following CoLUBER /M

Linen. variety with two red longitudinal stripes.



Linen., Andvipera~The 2~are extremely common in ponds and streams whose course is not fast in the vicinity of Algiers and Oran it is a species considered so far as new by MESSRS. Isidore Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire and Duvernoy, and which will be described by the latter. These turtles come out of the water during the greatest heat of the day and come for a walk on the shore. We also see them very often on the surface, sticking their heads out to breathe and plon.

at the slightest noise. I sometimes saw the mother, followed by several small ones, swimming on the surface of the water. Their food must differ little from that of the other species of emyds; but I have seen them eat the corpses of dead horses that have fallen into the streams they inhabit. I ‘)! counted more than twenty resting on the~K/~same horse, and who rushed into the water as soon as they saw me.~The land turtles are extremely numerous throughout the country between the little Atlas range and the sea; the plain of the Metidja and those around Oran are filled with them but I do not remember having seen a single one in the vicinity of Medea, the only portion of land that I could explore beyond the mountains. All these turtles belong to the same species, Testudo gr

which also exists in the Morea and on several other points of the Mediterranean coast. The terrestrial turtles of Algiers lay a large quantity of eggs, which are found on the ground in the places they inhabit, and which we eat, although they are extremely dry the flesh of these animals is quite similar to that of chicken, our soldiers ate a lot of them; the Arabs and the Moors do not make any case.

There are no great fluvial saurians in all the portion of Barbary that I have visited; but the terrestrial saurians are there.-~c~many, especially the Lacerta genera, C

eo and P

I have reported a fairly large number of individuals, among which Mr. Duvernoy recognized the following species LACERTA algyra, Flax.~LACERTA~ï~M~j~WAGLER, and a third species close to this one, but which, however, differs a little from it.

TILIQUA, oullata, Gray.~nc~t~~CnAM


Latr. The latter species is extremely common in the vicinity of Algiers and Oran; it lives in hedges and brushwood. We meet at every step motionless chameleons on the branches of trees and bushes, rolling their eyes in all directions to discover the insects that they catch with their long tongue, without moving a place, more than o”~5. de distance. These animals are very easy to tame; I have seen several soldiers who had taught them to come and eat in the hand.~M/~r~~The marine crustaceans are as numerous in the vicinity of Algiers as on the coasts of Provence, and the species are the same, at least from what I have seen of them. I didn’t rap. wore the ones that the fishermen sold, because at the mere sight I recognized them to be identical with those that we eat in Marseille and in all our Mediterranean ports. The ones that I was able to collect myself, in the holes of the rocks and on the sand, are GRApsus varius, Latr. PAGURUS~Id. PAL

MY serratus, Found in fountains and streams, even up to the Atlas, twelve hundred meters above sea level, the fluvial TnELPHusA, Latr.; but I have not met other species of crustaceans in the fresh waters of Barbary; nor have I seen terrestrial crabs.~M~As in all hot countries, insects are extremely numerous in Barbary. During the summer, we were manded by flies~during the day, and by fleas, bedbugs and mosquitoes during the night. We have no idea how many fleas exist in the vicinity of Algiers, it was nothing that our rooms were filled with them, and that we were devoured by them when we were there; we found masses of them up to the middle of the plain of the Metidja, in places that had never been inhabited. In the month of May i85i, we came to camp, with a column of four thousand men, in the portion of the plain located on the right bank of the Arrach, and very far from the dwellings there we were devoured by fleas throughout the night, and the next day we had the body so well covered with bites that it was all red. These fleas are small and very thin I have often seen men who were completely covered with them. In Algiers, although I managed to keep my room as clean as possible, I happened to kill up to three hundred people on my legs in one morning. Our soldiers were more afraid of fleas than Bedouins, many fell ill so that they could not sleep, because they were too tormented by these insects.


and the Y

o/Me~ï/~are also very~many, but much less than fleas, and they did not bother us as much. We could destroy the bugs, and guarantee ourselves from mosquitoes with mosquito nets; but there was nothing to be done against these terrible fleas. While we were marching against Algiers, the flies filled our tents and bothered us a lot; but in the houses we could get rid of them. In Oran, all the evil insects are much less numerous than in Algiers.~In the Atlas Mountains, the plain of the Metidja, and in the hills of the coast, there are many honey flies that live in the hollows of the rocks and the trunks of the trees. The Arabs seek them out and destroy them in order to get the honey and the wax; they also raise some around their dwellings.

The Tscos

they are much less numerous in Africa than in Provence; they are absolutely the same species as in our countries; but I have never heard that they do anything wrong. I saw, in the regency, several species of grasshoppers, some of which are big! like the finger and that the inhabitants eat

it is only accidentally, and quite rarely, that we see, as in Egypt and Syria, clouds of these animals coming to melt over a country, and devastate it almost entirely, despite everything we can do to prevent them. In 1723 and 1724, swarms of grasshoppers came to ravage the surroundings of Algiers, and in particular, a lot of harm to the vines.~o~I have reported a lot of Barbary insects, among which there are some new species belonging to the genera Forficula, Truxalis and Padisma, which will be described in the Memoirs of the Natural History Society of Strasbourg. I also found, in the vicinity of Algiers, the BLATTA kakerlac, Degéer, and the Passing Locust, Acridium migratorium, Latr.< après les avoir fait frire dans l'huile mais c(

~In the little Atlas, I collected all the insects that I found, because I knew that we had very few notions about those who live in these mountains. As I put them in a bottle with wine spirit, which I carried for a very long time in my pocket and on horseback, several were damaged to the point that Mr. Audouin, who kindly took. the trouble of them

examine, could not positively recognize the species. Here is the result of his examination CoLEOpTERÉs D

new species

/y?~oy~M~Cistela r~? BoRos elongatus. ATEUCHUS~/c~ym-~~o/~? A. MCC~MELAE~M~C~~LAMPYRIS Zc/zAen! BLAPS~There are quite a lot of birds in the country we are describing. We find on the shores of the sea a large amount of Gulls, ro~C~O~M~of sea, Sandpipers and triers, which are the same as those of the coasts of Spain and Provence. The Biset Pigeons live along the cliffs in the holes of the rocks, from Algiers to Cape Falcon, north-West of Oran. This species is the same that populates ourcolombiersdeFrance (Columbia Briss. ) it spreads a lot and all the more easily because the Algerians have a certain veneration for it they never eat pigeons.~

Almost all the birds of Provence are~cM~All these birds nest on the edge of the ri-

old and in the marshes. From the month of November until the end of winter, there are so many of them on the plain, that one cannot, so to speak, take a step without encountering troops of them. The Arabs set traps for them and take some of them, but they do not hunt them with guns. The first time we entered the Metidja, they were so little wild that they remained quietly, twenty paces from the road, while our army marched, but they became a little more so when the officers had sent them a few shots of rifle. There are also many red partridges (Perdix

), of which the Arabs take a large quantity, and here is how when they discovered the surrender of the partridges, they spread a large net on a bush as close as possible to the place where they are and which is isolated from the others then they describe, while walking, a’ large circle around, which they shrink continuously until the partridges have taken refuge under the net then, they make them get up by throwing loud screams and hitting on the bush they leave with haste and several remain embarrassed in the net. This way

to hunt succeeds perfectly I saw, in Oran, an Arab who had taken forty partridges in a morning.~7M~Returning from Medea with General Achard, in the month of November i83o, we found a large quantity of red partridges perched on the olive trees which are at the foot of the little Atlas, busy eating the olives which were then very ripe.

Another gallinacea, which is still quite common in the plains of Barbary, is the little Bustard ( 0

tetrax, Lin.), a variety with thinner legs and higher than the ordinary little bustard, having the anterior part of the belly colored like the chest and black transverse stripes on the wing covers.

abandon Europe during the winter, go to take refuge on your Barbaric coasts.~Neither Swallows nor Quails spend the winter north of the little Atlas they come in mid-March and leave towards the end of October. There are a few quails left during the winter but they are lazy ones.

I have not had the opportunity to study the birds that inhabit the mountains of the little Atlas; however, I think they differ little from those found at their foot in the plain. Whenever I have entered these mountains, I have always seen a lot of Vultures (

Linen. ) species that also exists in all the great mountains of southern Europe, and mainly on the rocks of Gibraltar, whose troops often came prowling around our camps to eat the debris of the butchers and the horses that we lost.

That’s all I know about the birds of the regency of Algiers; it comes down to very little, still I owe most of it to the complacency of Mr. Mary, pharmacist of our hospitals, who was engaged in ornithology, and who will undoubtedly have done, since my departure,~M~~r~M~M~a lot of discoveries that he will probably publish when he returns.

There is a large amount of jR

and Mice in the fields and in the houses, and especially in Algiers the suburb of BabAzoun, where there are many butchers and where the filth of the city is stored, is filled with them; some are of an extraordinary size. According to Mr. Duvernoy, the mice that I have reported consist of only two species.

Linen. y and~Id. ai located in the vicinity of Oran the . I found it in the vicinity of Oran le Cei, M/M~M~ ~r~r~Duvernoy.~y/A~c~The GERBOA, Dipius sagitta, Cuv., lives on the northern slope of the little Atlas, in the province of Algiers but it is around Oran that this charming animal is the most common the Arabs brought a large quantity of snappers to the market every day, that they sold us a rabia boudjou (nine cents) a pair. I brought back to Paris three vivan gerboas, which were very well tamed and which spent the winter of i85t 1 and i853; but in the spring two died.~ ~û~~The most interesting piece in my collection of Barbary animals is a Macrocelid, a new genus, discovered, a few years ago, by Mr. Smith at the Cape of Good Hope, of which, until now, only one species was known, Macrocelides

“As for the specific characters that seem to me to distinguish our individual from the in-

M. from Cape Town, says this famous naturalist I find them

) 1°. In different proportions of several parts. In our individual the size M is nine inches four lines, including the “tail, which is just half that long (the Cape species has it a little less ‘) long than the body. The length of the head

) with the proboscis, relative to the body, is “a little less than in the species of the Cape. “The ears are longer and have a “more elongated shape. MESSRS. Smith and Isidore ” Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire do not describe an o)) reillon or an inner lobe in the base of the ” conch, as in our individual. » 2″. There are also differences in the “teeth. Those that hold apart one “from the other of the two middle incisors or the first incisor on each side, which are found in the individuals of the Cape, following ” M. Isidore Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, and to the in” tervalli that exist between the three false “abnormal molars of the lower jaw and the second incisor, while they “overlap on their anterior edge in” the individuals of the Cape, announce propor-

~different positions or in the teeth or in the “jaws.~. Finally, the shades of the coat seem to us a little dissimilar. The color “mouse gray of the bottom of the coat, the shades ” of dirty yellow, red or brown, which give you a varied length of the tips of the hairs” of the entire top and sides of the body, served. still, it seems to us, to characterize “this species. »

We still know very little about the customs of the macrocelid. This animal is very rare in the vicinity of Oran, where we found only two individuals, of which only one is alive. He lives in the middle of the brush, and must probably retire to an underground dwelling like the one at the Cape. I have never seen him stand on his hind feet like the gerboas, he walks on his four feet, sniffing with his trunk all the objects that are in his path. He is extremely gentle and not at all wild the one we kept alive for some time willingly stayed on the hand he walked quietly on a table around which eight people were sitting, eating the

» 3~small pieces of bread and fruit that we. gave it to him. I saw him drinking wine in Colonel Lefol’s hand while lapping like dogs. This one is the only one I have ever seen alive, it belonged to a soldier who lost it shortly after showing it to us so that I could not observe his habits long enough. The individual I sent to the Strasbourg Museum had been taken by a viper who escaped with it to eat it

when one of my soldiers killed her

and we are~ain&i. double., prey. The Genet of~Cuv. ) is quite common in the vicinity of Algiers. I brought one back~to the very ‘bieh preparéeparM. Mary. 1; The Hares that we killed a! a cha~~r~ ( ~ïe~as well as all those that I have seen brought by the Bedouins to the markets of Algiers and Oran, are of the same species as ours.~dus, Lin.; but they are a third smaller. These animals are extremely numerous in the plain of the Metidja and the hills that border it to the north. There must probably also be rabbits there; but I have never seen any, either that~së~in all the terrain that I have traveled in the vicinity of the viUe d’Oran.~M~ ~w~The large ferocious animals that inhabit Barbarism are very well known they are Zto

tigers, Leopards, Wolves. and C’s

M’ The lions, the tigers and the leopards never show themselves in the vicinity of Algiers; they remain in the mountains of the little Atlas, where they inhabit only large forests little frequented by men however. they sometimes come as far as the gates of Oran. In this province, we often meet them in the middle of the plains and in the mountains that border the coast that the French sailors name~Saint-Augustine, and which is located on the coast, three leagues east of Oran, is called by the Arabs Mountain of the Zïo/~because it is inhabited by these animals. The Arabs and the Berbers wage war on the three species of ferocious beasts of which I have just spoken, in order to have the skins which they sell very dearly; they kill them with guns and also set traps for them. These animals are not~b/~not very numerous we see much less of them than wolves in our departments of central France hunters are forced to search for a long time before discovering the place of their habitation, and then to spy the favorable moment to kill them.~Barbary Wolves are very similar to those of Europe; but they are smaller, very few in number and the Bedouins almost never catch them.

The Jackal is the most common species of tawny beast on the North coast of Africa this animal is much less to be feared than the! ions


etc.; but he is more voracious and more enterprising every evening shortly after sunset our camps, despite the large number of fires that illuminated them, were surrounded by bands of jackals there who, throughout the night, made the tunes sound with their squeaky voice. These animals devoured, with a truly extraordinary promptness, the corpses of dead horses; they also searched the pits to extract the bodies of soldiers killed in combat. it often happened to us while returning to the battlefields, twenty-four hours alone-~but after leaving, to find the bodies torn from the ground and horribly mutilated in broad daylight, I saw horses devoured almost as soon as they had fallen. This voracity of the jackal could make it seem that he is extremely dangerous for the herds well! no, he never attacks live animals, not even sheep. The Arabs leave their flocks in the fields day and night, under the care of a single man and a few dogs, and the jackals never attack them; but they continually prowl around, barking at intervals, during the night, and as soon as some cattle die they pounce in crowds on them and devour them. During the day, the jackals flee the dwellings, and as soon as they see a man, they run away at full speed; but, in the darkness, nothing frightens them they come prowling around the houses and enter them whenever they can. I lived, for a few days, with a detachment of the 15c line regiment, a house located on Mount Bou-Zaria, around which the jackals came barking every evening they entered the kitchen through a hole and ate everything they found. Jackal~are very easy to take and kill; the Arabs, however, catch some of them, which they come to sell at the Algiers market.

Wild boars are very common in all parts of the regency of Algiers, where they can spread very easily; for the inhabitants, who never eat them, do not wage war on them. There are many forests and vast expanses of land covered with brushwood in which they can live in complete safety it is not uncommon to see, in the month of May, Laies walking in the countryside with ten or twelve Moccasins. When we were masters of Algiers, the Bedouins, knowing that we ate pork, hunted wild boars and killed several of them, which they brought to the market. One day I bargained for a very beautiful one that could weigh ten kilograms; the Arab asked me for ten soudi-bouajoux (3y fr. 20 c.). Passing through the plain with the army, we saw a shepherd who had brought a medium-sized boar on the way, which he offered to everyone without being able to sell it; finally, he gave it for a real boudjou (fr. 85 c.). In Barbarism, the flesh of the boar is less firm and. unless

pleasant to the taste than in our countries, however. dant she is still good to eat. Although there are many wild boars in the vicinity of Algiers, we do not notice that they plow the land and commit damage in the fields, as can be seen in Bresse and several other parts of the interior of France. I have not noticed that the Algerians use the skin of the wild boar for someone’s use.

The porcupine is at least as common as the wild boar it causes a lot of havoc in the gardens and in the fields. The Moors, the Arabs and the Berbers hunt him to destroy him and they sometimes eat him. During my stay in Algiers, we sold a lot of them at the market; a very nice porcupine cost a real boudjou and sometimes even two. These animals must lose their piquans at certain times of the year; for we encountered them in very large quantities in the fields. hedgehog. I found in the vicinity of Algiers the same species of hedgehog as in France (Erinaceus eMropcpM

) only the individuals that I saw seemed to me to be a little bigger than ours they have, moreover, the same

tabitudes and feed absolutely in the same way. This kind of pachyderms is much less numerous than wild boars and porcupines; it is found, quite rarely, in brushwood and in hedges.~gazelle. This charming quadruped inhabits the mountains of the little Atlas, from the regency of Tunis to the empire of Morocco; it is the Dorcas Lin Antelope., of which three varieties can be distinguished:

er is fawn in color, white under the belly, without black spots on!! she has smooth horns on her sides.

Gazelles are extremely common in the North of Africa the Turks and the Moors had many of them in their country houses it is a gentle animal and very easy to tame. Six months after we entered Algiers, the Arabs and the Berbers brought some~a large number; but as the French officers bought a lot of them, they were always very expensive. A live gazelle is fri. from six and seven soudi-boudjoux, until 26 fr, The Arabs eat them; they brought what. sometimes at the market, to which they had cut the neck. We bought some and roasted them, but the flesh is extremely bland and not very nourishing. Gazelles have a flexibility and a kindness in movements that make it very pleasant to see them frolicking in the middle of the countryside, and even when they are enclosed in the enclosure of a garden. Their eyes are magnificent, and the young Arab in love, who extols them in his songs.! my of the one he loves, never fails to say that she has gazelle eyes.

The Monkeys that I saw in the Barbarism, both in Oran and in Algiers, belong to two genera the Magots and the

magots are of the large species, without tails.

I haven’t studied the others enough to know if we can distinguish several species, but I’m led to believe that there is only one. The monkeys live preferably in the forests of the little Atlas, but they also descend~~M~in the plains and they even come as far as the coast our soldiers have taken some of them in the brush of the point Pescade y on the edge of the sea, only a league from Algiers.~I do not believe that the Muslims like monkeys very much, because I have never seen any among them; but the Arabs and the Berbers Aridens to make money from everything took them in large numbers and brought them to us. They often gave them very cheaply so that several of our soldiers bought them and had fun instructing them. Everyone knows the intelligence of the monkeys and their ability to repeat what they see the soldiers of the African army had been able to take advantage of these happy dispositions, and their monkeys were

certainly more advanced in civilization than the Bedouins who traded with us every day.

Here, the enumeration of wild animals that I had the opportunity to observe in Barbarism is limited there are still many other species of which I could have spoken by compiling the authors who described them but, I repeat again, my goal is not to make a complete description;

I only want and must talk about what I have seen. I will now take care of the domestic animals, describe the different species, tell you the use we make of them and the improvements we could make in the way we care for them. and to use them for the various uses of life as well as for the work of agriculture.


them only to attract the blessings of the cid to their homes. They act the same way 🙂 with regard to storks in this, they agree with the inhabitants of our northern provinces but the swallows, which are respected in almost all of France, did not seem to me to enjoy the same advantage on the other side of the Mediterranean.

I have seen white pigeons with a few small feathers on their legs but I have not found in Barbary this large species that we call pattus Pigeons.

cat. The species of domestic cat of the regency of Algiers is the same as ours. The Moors and the Arabs love these animals very much, they never hit them and recommend their children not to hurt them. I believe that, like the Egyptians, they regard them as sacred animals, and that they render them a kind of cult, but it could well also be that their veneration came only from the services they render them by destroying the rats which are in very large numbers in the inhabited places, which seems to me to prove in favor of the latter

opinion is that I have sometimes seen ten cats in the same house.


M are at least as numerous as cats, especially in the countryside, i and especially among nomadic tribes. The most common species of dog is medium-sized, smooth-haired; the body is long and slender, the muzzle pointed, the ears straight and the tail very long. Its most ordinary color is pale yellow and white, however, we also see some spotted dogs but almost never black ones.

There is yet another species of dog, long-haired and a little curly, which is very close to its analogue in Europe. The individuals of this one have a larger muzzle and a more elongated body than those of the other they seem to be less wild they are the only ones I have seen coming to caress us; the others ran away screaming when we called them or when we approached them.~Each Arab family leader always has several dogs, who guard around his tent and accompany him on his expeditions. If you come in the middle of the tents without being accompanied by a natural, you run big i7′

risk of being devoured by the dogs, no matter how well armed you are, they throw themselves at you from all sides and it is impossible to resist them. When the Arabs go to war, their dogs follow them, which means that, in the camps, there are many more dogs than men. Those of each individual keep guard around their master’s tent they are the only sentries in the camp, and even, in front of the enemy, the Arab warriors sleep soundly throughout the night, resting on their dogs to give them the alert in case of attack.

When we were marching against Algiers, the enemy had entrenched himself on heights overlooking a valley that he had been able to put between him and us, and whose passage he bravely defended for four days. On the night of the fifth, our massed battalions marched in silence on the positions of the Algerians, everything was asleep, dogs and men; the rout was complete, the Emperor’s castle was invested during the day, and Algiers opened its doors five days later.

pig. Neither Muslims nor Jews eat pork meat, Algerians

don’t raise any. Towards the end of my stay in Algiers, however, I saw some of them of a black color, with very short legs and round body but I presume that they had been brought from Spain.

The Goats that I have seen in the vicinity of Algiers are of a different species than those of Provence and the interior of France they are much smaller, almost always black in color; their ears are long and hanging, they have short legs and an extremely unpleasant cry. We meet some herds of goats on the slopes of the little Atlas and in the plain of the Metidja but these animals are not very numerous in the portion of the Barbarie that I traveled. sheep. The most common species of sheep in the regency of Algiers differs little from Ia

The Berbers and the Arabs raise a very large quantity of sheep; we see immense flocks of them grazing, during the whole year, on the mountains and on the plains. These peoples eat its flesh and they drink its milk, but it is especially for their wool that they have it; they collected a large quantity of it, before our arrival in Africa, which they were obliged to bring to the shops of the, dey or beys

depending on the province. We paid them what the master set. We will come back to this, talking about the power of the Deyd

AIger and that of his lieutenants.~Before the arrival of the French army, sheep were very cheap in all parts of the regency; after the battle of Staoueli, the Arabs sold them to us at i fr. 85 c. and even at i fr. 35 c. a piece. Six months after our entry into Algiers, we still had a Soudi-boudjou (3 ir. 72 c.)J Of all the meats of Barbarism, it is the flesh of the sheep which seemed to me preferable, the Arabs and the Moors make great use of it. In the common class, they are eaten only on feast days; but the well-to-do people have them on their table almost every day. The mutton, cooked with couscoussou,~is the dish most sought after by Algerians we will talk about it elsewhere.

African wools are much more refined than ours. If we ever manage to have regular and friendly relations with the peoples of the small. At)as and more advanced tails in the interior of the country, wools will be able to become an extremely important branch of trade.


y. All the ones I have seen are much smaller than ours; they look quite similar to a small species that is very common in Burgundy but the African one has much shorter legs. These cows have very small udders and generally flabby; although they roam excellent pastures for seven months of the year, they never have very little milk. The butter that is made with it is white and almost tasteless the milk is however quite good; but to find it such, it must be drunk coming out of the udder of the cow. The Arabs bring it to the market, in earthen vases, corked with lentisc leaves, or in goat and sheep skins that have not been passed. Not only does it take on a bad taste, but also, as

Thistles are few in number, although there are many uncultivated lands on the coast of Barbarie I don’t remember seeing any in the plain of Métidja~c~about a dime.

The Algerians have very large herds of cows, which graze, in all seasons, in the middle of the plains, on the hills and the flat~pr~-c~Me~ux. However numerous it may be, it is rare for a herd to be guarded by more than three men, always armed with a rifle, having with them up to twelve dogs and even more. The Moors, the Arabs and the Berbers sometimes kill cows and oxen, but the meat of these animals is not as esteemed as that of sheep.

They~of Barbarism are generally smaller than ours, however, I have seen some as large, but I believe that we can consider them as phenomena in the species usually the most beautiful

Thistles are few in number, although there are many uncultivated lands on the coast of Barbarie I don’t remember seeing any in the plain of Métidja~M/~had smoother skin than the donkey, the head and tail of the cow, but no horns. The author adds that it is a beast of burden of which we make very great use. I stayed for sixteen months in the regency of Algiers, and despite all my research, I could never manage to see a single one of these animals, both in the vicinity of Algiers and in those of Oran. The Moors and the Jews, to whom I have spoken several times, told me not to.

not to know, and I believe that there is none: it is one of the many tales, made by the authors who wrote about the northern lands of Africa.~M/M~~They

y of Barbarism are absolutely the same as ours, and they are used for the same purposes. A Moor must be very poor in order not to have a donkey, which he uses to carry burdens and ride on them when he goes into the countryside or when he comes to the city, if he lives in the fields, even though there would only be a quarter of an hour’s journey. The Jews also have a lot of donkeys; the Arabs use them very little, they replace them with horses and camels. The mules are as beautiful as those of Provence, they have a well-made body., high head and thin legs. The Moors and the Jews often use them to mount; they are also used to carry burdens. To this end, we put a big bat on their backs (as in Provence), from which we hang two baskets made of date leaves. Although the Algerians do not take better care of their mules than other animals, and they give them a very frugal food, they are doing well

Thistles are few in number, although there are many uncultivated lands on the coast of Barbarie I don’t remember seeing any in the plain of Métidja~~st almost always with mules that the Ma

?8 and the Jews set out on their journeys, and when these peoples tell you about a day’s walk, you can hear the path that a mule can travel from sunrise to sunset, which must be in the plain, at twelve. leagues of five thousand meters each.~The CAcMM~. If we classified the animals according to the usefulness they are to the human species, in almost all of Africa the camel should be put before all the others it endures fatigue with a really extraordinary constancy, it is very sober grass, a little barley, beans and a few pieces of bread are enough for its existence it can do without drinking for seven or eight days; which makes it extremely valuable for travel? in the desert, where he carries on his back the water necessary for the whole caravan, without almost decreasing the quantity by his consumption. This animal walks very fast and long-time loaded from six to

seven quintals, he can do up to fifteen leagues a day without drinking or eating. The Arabs raise a large number of camels; many are found in the plain of the Metidja and on the slope of the small Atlas. After removing the burdens from them, they let them go and let them graze around their huts, without taking care of them any more, until they want to use them, so they take them back, put the pack on their backs and leave with them. The camels around Algiers are magnificent. The Dro/zr6 y that the Moors call Macharr, is not nearly as common as the camel; however, we still see one. quite a large number. At the Battle of Staoueli, the Algerians abandoned nearly two hundred in their camp. The speed of the dromedary is even more considerable than that of the camel the Arabs claim that a dromedary makes more way in a single day than the best horse in three. This animal is smaller than the camel; it has a better made body and a single hump on the 1st back.~The Algerians use camels and camels only to carry tardels. I’ve never seen one harnessed to the cart-

street; as for the cars, they were unknown in Barbary before our arrival.

When the Arabs want to use the camels, they go to look for them in the pastures, and bring them in front of the tent. There, they make them lie on their stomach, bending all four legs, and to achieve this, they just have to hit a few blows with a small wand on the front ones. When the camels have taken this posture, they let themselves be loaded without moving, and wait to get up until the master, after having mounted on one of them, has given the signal to start, then they start following each other, and obey the voice of the driver mounted on the last. The Arabs sometimes put a halter on the camels but most of the. time they neglect this precaution, and having mounted on it, they lead them with a small wand, of which they give them a few blows on the head. Arrived at the fixed point, the Arab knocks with his wand on the legs of his camels; they all get on their stomachs, and wait patiently until we want to unload them; I have often seen some, at the Bab-Azoun market, stay for several hours in this position.

The inhabitants of the countryside sometimes gather in very large numbers, with their camels, to come to the market, and thus form caravans whose view is truly magnificent I know of nothing more imposing than a handsome Arab, elegantly draped in his Haik, fixed around his head by a triple cord of brown wool, mounted on a camel, walking with great strides, and which he directs with a long white wand.

The gait of the camel is the step, the amble, the small . and the big trot but it never gallops. From what we have just said, it would seem that this animal is very easy to drive it is not so, however, it takes gentleness and a great habit to achieve it. The ones we took at the battle of Staoueli were distributed to the army, to be used to transport food and luggage well our soldiers could never manage to make them walk they tied them with ropes and beat them these unfortunate animals threw themselves on the ground and uttered cries quite similar to those of the pig. When we let them go, they ran away at full speed and we had a lot of trouble to

jcs resume. One day I saw a loaded camel that soldiers had let slip, run with all his might, put his head on the ground, launch a ruade and thus get rid of his burden. The cantinières, to whom he had given camels, made much better use of them than the soldiers I have known several who used them with as much skill as the Arabs.

The camel will be of great help in our establishments in Africa; it can be used for all kinds of transport, and mainly to supply the posts that we will be forced to establish on the northern slope of the little Atlas to make ourselves master of the Metidja. It offers two great advantages over all other animals it is extremely strong and costs nothing to feed.

horse. If the camel is the most precious animal of Barbarism, the horse is the most beautiful and the one that naturals value more. We know that the Numidian horsemen, who were the strength of the African armies, were so formidable only because of the excellence of their horses. Those of Barbarism may have degenerated a little since ancient times but

they are still excellent the Berbers, whom we fought in the vicinity of Algiers and in the middle of the Atlas Mountains, were all mounted on superb horses, with which they crossed the valleys and the mountains where our infantry had great difficulty walking. The Arabs of the plain and those who inhabit the hills by the sea also have very beautiful horses but they are, I believe, inferior to those of the Berbers.

tall and have the most elegant looks. The ordinary size of the horses of Algiers is! °

they rarely go to r”,5o. Although they are light, and they run with a lot of speed, they are however lazy and need to be stimulated this may also be due to the way they are driven. The saddle of the Arabs is quite the same as that of the Turks it carries two extremely heavy rectangular stirrups, and whose angles are acute the bridle, for the belts, is made in the same way as ours, but the bit is an iron ring whose part which enters the mouth, carries a lever arm which comes to rest against the palate when the rider marks a stop time. This one has for spurs two long iron pins, slightly curved at the ends, with which it can gently prick the horse’s belly; but if he does not obey, he shoves these pins into his stomach and the animal immediately leaves. The construction of the bit allows the rider to stop his horse at short notice, even at full gallop in the first moments of our arrival in Africa, we were very surprised to see the Algerian riders throwing. their horses at full bridle against us, the

stop short at gun range, shoot, turn around immediately and run away at a gallop while lying down on it; but our astonishment ceased when we had examined their bridles and their spurs.~4~Algerian horses have only two gaits, the step and the gallop the trot and the amble are unknown to them. Their step is so long that it takes a man who is a very good walker to follow him their gallop with lightning speed it is something beautiful and frightening to see an Arab or Berber rider fleeing in the middle of the brush and precipices.

The Moors, the Arabs and the Herpesians take rather poor care of their horses; they fo

t graze in all seasons, and when they bring them home, they. give them barley and a little bad straw. They never wet them and wash them very rarely, however, they always have an extremely strong pulse and are doing well, without being. fat. They are often dyed their flanks and legs with yellow ochre it is an adornment when the tribes sco

when assembled, there are only the horses of the chiefs who are thus decorated.~Algerians raise a lot of horses,~let them sell to each other, and to the French since we are in Africa. In t83ï, we had a very beautiful horse for t oo soudi-boudjoux (3

2 fr. ); but the twins were overpriced the owners even almost always refused to sell them. Every head of the Arab or Berber family has at least one horse when he has several, the one he rides to go to war captivates all his friendship he likes it better than his wife he tells everyone who wants to listen to him, tells his exploits and his genealogy. It is a great honor for an Arab

to have a horse that descends in a direct line from such a father or such a mother, and it is to prove it that he very carefully keeps his genealogy in writing.~Some Arabs spend more time with their horses than in the bosom of their family, they really love them, and their attachment to them is pushed to such an extent that they hang around their necks, as if on their own, like amulets, to preserve them from certain inals and the wickedness of evil spirits. In the regency of Algiers, some of the worst horses are employed to carry burdens and to plow the land but the~others are never used only to climb. If, from their birth, Algerian horses were cared for as ours are, instead of being abandoned to themselves

I am convinced that they would become superb.

The education of horses is a branch of industry which can become very lucrative for the new settlers; we would have, in the vicinity of Algiers, as many horses as we would like, and in abundance everything necessary to feed them. These horses would sell very well in Europe, I presume that they would acclimatize perfectly there; because they live in the vicinity of Medea, whose temperature differs little from that of our countries. These horses are much more lively than ours trained in their youth, they would take on all kinds of looks, they would be very nice hand horses, and there would be a great advantage to ride our cavalry with them but they are too delicate to make draft horses or to use them for agricultural work.~I end the story of the animals with that of the horse, because it is he who is most immediately in contact with man in the country I am describing. Arabic and Berber are

more attached to their horses than to their wives, a large part of the Bedouins spend their time caring for and contemplating these animals, while their wives are busy with the most difficult jobs and in the evening, when they return to the tent or to the hut, they are still often forced to grind the grain and make the cake for their husband’s supper. Now I will give the history, the physical characters, the manners and customs of the different varieties of the human species, which I have been able to observe myself in the Barbary States.




RrV! ERE8. 12 Hamise(r). ï3 Arrach(r). J

. Bou-Farick River. ï

Chiffa(the). Af! oun(!’). t5~Onadjer(r). Mazafran (the). 16 Oran Creek. jg 1 Lakes.~Secondary Education. 22 Lias (Formation of the). Ib. Copper in Elias. a5 Subatlantic tertiary land. 2

Transitional ground. 34 Shale. Gray and white limestone. 35 Gneiss. 3q Trachitic porphyry

2 Diluvian terrain. Red marl. Travertine. 49 Post-diluvian terrain. 5o Dunes. Ib.~ARTESIAN WELLS. 52~GEOLOGY OF ORAN. Shale. Dolomite. 59 Tertiary land of Oran. 63 Diluvian terrain. (

Post-diluvian terrain. 60 Puitsartësiens. no


Q Table of meteorological observations made at .83 Meteorological observations made in the plain of the Metidja. On the Little Atlas. 135 AMëdëya. .36

Summary of meteorological observations. 1~0 Phenomenon of glamour.) VentduSud(

MOMw). i5o Rainy season. i5t Atmospheric electricity. i52 Twilight light. ï5/~WATER. !6q From the sea. 1~2a CHAPTER IX.< Brouillards.t55 Taches dusoleil. i58 Sphéricité de la lune. i5q Aiguille aimantée. t65 De Pair. 166 CHAPITRE VIII.

VEGETATION. 1~6 Plants from Europe that live in Barbarism. i

Plants of the bord~from the sea and the plains. t8o Atlas Plants. t8t Botanical summary. i83 The date tree. 18~Wild orange trees. t8c) Legrenadiei. Myrtle. 10″~PET.2n Zoophytes.218 Mollusks.220 Cephalopods. 7~. Sea shells. 221 I Freshwater shells. 222 Earth shells. 7

FISH.226 Marine fish. Ib. Freshwater fish. 22() Batracians.23o Reptiles. Saurians.23~Shellfish.2~Insects. Bird.238 MAMMtFERES.2~3 Smiles.~Gerboa. a44 Macrocëlide. Barbane’s Genet. a4? Hare.~FEROCIOUS ANIMALS.2

8 Wolves. 249 Jackals.

Boar.2.5i Porcupines. 252 Hedgehogs. Ib. Gazelle. a53 Monkeys. a5~DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 2 5

Barnyard birds. Ib. Cats. 258 Dogs.25g Pigs. 260 Goats.261 Sheep. 7~

. Cows. a63 Oxen.264~


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